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English - complex exam.docx
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1) Literary, 2) neutral, 3) colloquial.

Neutral words make the major bulk of any type of text (either oral or written). They possess no stylistic connotation and can be used in any communicative situation. (table, man, day)

Terms are used in the scientific functional style. The denotative meanings of terms are clearly defined. (approbation, triangle, vector).

Professionalisms are term-like words they are used and understoodby members of a certain trade or profession (scalpel, round pliers);

Literary vocabulary:

1. Poetic words create poetic image and make speech elevated. Their nature is archaic. (Albion, quoth, steed, courser, sylvan, maiden, foe). 2. Archaic words belong to Old English and are not recognized nowadays. The function is to create realistic background to historical works of literature (methinks = it seems to me, nay = no). 3. Bookish words are mainly used in oral speech, diplomacy and business. Main function is to create the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, learnedness (communications=negotiations, commence=begin, respond=answer, hibernate=wintry). 4. Neologisms:

Internet terms: network, server, e-mail, provider, site, Internet, Message, Microsoft;

Stylistic neologisms are new words denoting existing object or concepts: seesaw, hush-hash work;

Lexical neologisms are new words denoting new objects and concepts: push-button war, rockumentary, fruitologist, death-star. 5. Nonce words are created by speakers to meet the need of the actual communication situation. They achieve one-time purpose and disappear: womanity, balconyful of gentlemen. 6. Barbarisms are non-assimilated borrowing from French and Latin (alter ago - другой я, protégé-протеже). Function: show foreign origin of the character.

Colloquial vocabulary is a part of standard English word-stock.

1. Colloquialisms – functional colloquial elements (social phrases, greetings, form of address. Functions: emotive, phatic, conative (oops, oh, wow, ala). 2. Dialectisms are words used by people of a certain community living in a certain territory. (Sir, you speak English well = Cousin, y’all talk mighty fine; Paisano, you speak good the English; Landsman, you English is planty all right already). 3. Slang is a language that takes off its coat, spits on its hands and goes to work. It is non-standard vocabulary understood and used by the whole nation (Sir, I spit on you and your bloody opinion.) Types of slang:

Cant is a conversional, familiar idiom used only by member of specific occupation, trade, profession, class, age group, interest group. Jargon – non-standard words used by people of a certain asocial group to keep their intercourse secret (white stuff=cocaine or morphine, candy=cocaine. Argot is both the cant and jargon of any criminal group (snifter=cocaine addict, candy man=drug seller, cap=capsule with narcotic. Vulgarisms are expletives or swear words as well as obscene words end expressions.

2. The notion of style in the language. Notion of language expressive means and stylistic devices. Convergence of stylistic devices.

Style is concerned with the artful expression of idea and stylistics is the bridge that links the idea of style to the analysis of literary texts through the tool of linguistics. Style is the linguistic expression in prose or verse – it is how speakers or writers say whatever it is that they say. The style of a particular work or writer has been analyzed in the terms of the characteristic modes of its diction, or choices of words, itssentence structure and syntax; the density and types of its figurative language; the patterns of its rhythm, component sounds, and other formal features; and its rhetorical claims and devices. 

In linguistics there are different terms to denote particular means by which utterances are foregrounded, i.e. made more conspicuous, more effective and therefore imparting some additional information. They are called expressive means, stylistic means, stylistic marker, tropes, figures of speech and other names.

In literature and writing, Stylistic Devices are the use of any of a variety of techniques to give an auxiliary meaning, idea, or feeling to the literal or written.

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