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5. Productive ways of English word-formation: affixation, shortening, conversion, compounding.


Linguists use the term affix to describe where exactly a bound morpheme is attached to a word. Prefixes are attached at the onset of a free morpheme, while suffixes are attached to the end. Infixes – affixes that occur in the middle of a word – are very rare in English, a well-known exception being expletive infixation. While in English suffixes can be either derivational or inflectional (teacher, slowly vs. apples, kicked), prefixes are always derivational (untie, recover, defrost). Conversion Another highly productive word formation process is conversion, which is the term used to describe a word class change without any morphological marking.

party (noun) -> party (verb)

We will be at the party

They like to party

Shortenings are produced in two different ways. The first is to make a new word from a syllable (rarer, two) of the original word. The latter may lose its beginning (as in phone made from telephone, fence from defence), its ending (as in hols from holidays, vac from vacation, props from properties, ad from advertisement) or both the beginning and ending (as in flu from influenza, fridge from refrigerator). The second way of shortening is to make a new word from the initial letters of a word group: U.N.O. from the United Nations Organisation, B.B.C. from the British Broadcasting Corporation. This type is called initial shortenings.

Clipping consists in cutting off two or more syllables of a word. (doc-doctor, mit-mitten, phone-telephone, influenza – flu). CLIPPING - Consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts.

An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.

6. Non-productive ways of word-formation in English: back-formation, blending, sound-imitation, sound & stress interchange.

Onomatopoeia - is a word that imitates or suggests the source of the sound that it describes. Onomatopoeias include animal noises, such as "oink" or "meow" or "roar".

Sound interchange is the way of word building when some sounds are changed to form a new word. e.g. to strike - stroke, to sing – song, hot - to heat , blood - to bleed.

Stress interchange can be mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: nouns have the stress on the first syllable and verbs on the last syllable, e.g. `accent - to ac`cent. French: to af`fix -`affix, to con`flict- `conflict. As a result of stress interchange we have also vowel interchange in such words because vowels are pronounced differently in stressed and unstressed positions.

Blendings may be defined as formation that combine two words that include the letters or sounds they have in common as a connecting element (Smoke + fog = smog, positron – positive electron).

7. Systemic relations in the English vocabulary. Groups of words in the lexicon. Neologisms, archaisms and international words.

Neologisms are words and expressions used for new phenomena, objects, processes, that is, new concepts that appear in the course of language development. For example: audiotyping, biocomputer.

Neologisms are new meanings of the already existing words. For instance, big C.

Neologisms are new names of old concepts: bread -гроші, acid – наркотик ЛСД,

Neologisms can become popular through mass media, the Internet, and academic discourse in many fields renowned for their use of distinctive jargon, and often become accepted parts of the language. Other times, however, they disappear from common use just as readily as they appeared. Whether a neologism continues as part of the language depends on many factors, probably the most important of which is acceptance by the public. When a word or phrase is no longer "new", it is no longer a neologism. Neologisms may take decades to become "old", however. Opinions differ on exactly how old a word must be to cease being considered a neologism.

Archaism – words which were once common but are now replaced by synonyms (e.g. save 'except', hapless 'unlucky', betwixt 'between', etc.).

In linguistics, an internationalism or international word is a loanword that occurs in several languages with the same or at least similar meaning and etymology. 

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