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3. Types of word meaning in English. Polysemy and its sources.

Grammatical meaning of the word - thus grammatical meaning may be defined ,as the component of meaning recurrent in identical sets of individual forms of different words, as, e.g., the tense meaning in the word-forms of verbs (asked, thought, walked, etc.) or the case meaning in the word-forms of various nouns (girl's, boy's, night's etc.).

Lexical meaning of the word - is the realisation of concept or emotion by means of a definite language system.

The word "polysemy" (from Greece "polus"-many and "sema"-meaning) means a plurality of meanings.

The system of meanings of any polysemantic word develops gradually, mostly over the, centuries. These complicated processes of polysemy development involve both the appearance of the new meanings and the loss of old ones. Yet, the general tendency with English vocabulary at the modern stage of its history is to increase the total number of its meanings and to provide for a quantitieve and qualitative growth of the expressive resources of the language.

The four most important types of semantic complexity may be roughly described as follows:

Firstly, every word combines lexical and grammatical meanings. E.g.: Father is a personal noun.

Secondly, many words not only refer to some object but have an aura of associations expressing the attitude of the speaker. They have not only denotative but connotative meaning as well. E. g.: Daddy is a colloquial term of endearment.

Thirdly, the denotational meaning is segmented into semantic components or semes. E.g.: Father is a male parent.

Fourthly, a word may be polysemantic, that is it may have several meanings, all interconnected and forming its semantic structure. E. g.: Father may mean: ‘male parent’, ‘an ancestor’, ‘a founder or leader’, ‘a priest’.

4. Morphological structure of a word. Immediate constituents’ analysis.

If we describe a w o r d as an autonomous unit of language in which a particular meaning is associated with a particular sound complex and which is capable of a particular grammatical employment and able to form a sentence by itself , we have the possibility to dis­tinguish it from the other fundamental language unit, namely, the mor­pheme.

A morpheme is the smallest component of a word, or other linguistic unit, that has semantic meaning. According to the role they play in constructing words, morphemes are subdivided into roots and affixes.

The stem expresses the lexical and the part of speech meaning.

A suffix is a derivational morpheme following the stem and form­ing a new derivative in a different part of speech or a different word class.

A prefix is a derivational morpheme standing before the root and modifying meaning.

IC-analysis divides up a sentence into major parts or immediate constituents, and these constituents are in turn divided into further immediate constituents. The process continues until irreducible constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a word or a meaningful part of a word.

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