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  1. Упражнения

  2. Упражнение 10. Просмотрите текст 11А и ответьте на вопросы.

  3. 1. What is this text about? 2. What is the phenomenon of super­conductivity? 3. Who was the first to discover the phenomenon? 4. What scientists do you know who have worked in the field of su­perconductivity? 5. What materials are the best superconductors? 6. Is it possible to return superconducting materials to the normal state? 7. How can it be done? 8. In what fields of science and tech­nology can the phenomenon of superconductivity be used?

  4. Упражнение 11. Укажите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию текста 11 А. Исправьте неправильные утверждения.

  5. 1. The latest achievements in superconductivity mean a revolu­tion in technology and industry. 2. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. 3. The achievements in super­conductivity cannot be compared with the discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. 4. The electrical resistivity of a mer­cury wire disappears when cooled below 4 K. 5. A superconducting material cannot be returned to the normal state. 6. Landau and Ginzburg introduced a model which was useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. 7. Scientists from IBM found a ceramic material that became a superconductor at a temperature of 23 K. 8. Potential technical uses of high tempera­ture superconductivity are unlikely to be possible and practical.

  6. Упражнение 12. Найдите в тексте ПА инфинитивные конструкции.

  7. Упражнение 13. Сравните пары предложений, переведите.

  8. 1. Designers report a new manned craft to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. A new manned craft is reported to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. 2. We know radio navigation

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  10. stations to be located at different places around the world to guide the pilots. Radio navigation stations are known to be located all over the world to guide the pilots. 3. People considered dirigibles to be too slow and unreliable, that is why they were not used for a long time. Dirigibles were considered to be slow and unreliable. 4. Ex­perts expect the new submersible craft to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. The new submersible craft is expected to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. 5. Scientists in many countries consider propeller engines to be much more economical. Propeller engines are considered to be much more economical. 6. We know propeller planes to fly slower than jet planes, therefore, a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built. But as pro­peller planes are known to fly slower than jet planes a new ventila­tor engine with a propeller has been built.

  11. Упражнение 14. Найдите предложения со сложным подлежащим, пере­ведите.

  12. 1. The phenomenon of superconductivity appears to have been discovered as early as 1911. 2. Before 1911 superconductivity was as­sumed to be impossible. 3. Recent discoveries in superconductivity made scientists look for new conducting materials and for practical applications of the phenomenon. 4. The latest achievements in the field of superconductivity are certain to make a revolution in tech­nology and industry. 5. Recommendations from physicists will al­low the necessary measures to be taken to protect the air from pollution. 6. Lasers are sure to do some jobs better and at much lower cost than other devices. 7. M. Faraday supposed a light beam to reverse its polarisation as it passed through a magnetised crystal. 8. Superconductors are likely to find applications we don't even think of at present. 9. A Dutch physicist found a superconducting material to return to normal state when a strong magnetic field was applied. 10. Properties of materials obtained in space prove to be much better than those produced on Earth. 11. There are prospects for lasers to be used in long distance communication and for trans­mission of energy to space stations. 12. The electrical resistivity of a mercury wire was found to disappear when cooled to —269 °C. 13. Additional radio transmitters let the pilot make his approach to an airport by watching his flight instruments. 14. There seems to be a lot of alloys and compounds that become superconductors under certain conditions.

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  14. УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ Упражнение 15. Определите, к какой части речи относятся слова.

  15. resistant, resist, resistance, resistor, resistivity; superconduc­tivity, superconductive, superconductor, superconducting; theory, theorist, theoretical, theorize; physics, physicist, physical, physi­cally; explain, explainable, explanation; store, storage, storable.

  16. Упражнение 16. Найдите русскому слову соответствующее английское.

  17. достижение — achievable, achievement, achieve; электронный — electronics, electronic, electron; легче — easily, easy, easier; удовлетворять — satisfy, satisfactory, satisfaction; действительно — reality, realise, really.

  18. Упражнение 17. Переведите слова с суффиксом -ward (-wards), обозна­чающим направление.

  19. toward(s), forward(s), backward(s), afterward(s), downward(s), outward(s), northward(s), southward(s), rearward(s), home­ward^), sideward(s), windward(s), upward(s).

  20. Упражнение 18. Найдите слова с нестандартным образованием множест­венного числа.

  21. There are a few words taken over from Latin and Greek that still retain their original plurals in English. In some cases we can use either. Formulas is seen more often than formulae. Antenna — antennae (pi). Many think that media, strata and phenomena are all singular. They агепЧ. Data, a plural, is used both ways.

  22. Here are some foreign singular and plural forms of words often used in English. Latin: medium (a means of mass communication) — media, nucleus (ядро атома) — nuclei; Greek: analysis — analyses; axis — axes; crisis — crises; hypothesis — hypotheses; phenomenon — phenomena.

  23. Упражнение 19. Найдите синонимы и антонимы.

  24. below — above; useful — useless; easy — difficult; field — sphere; to meet demands — to meet requirements (needs); full — complete; to use — to apply; to get — to obtain; moreover — be­sides; sufficient — enough; likely — unlikely; to continue — to dis­continue; conductivity — nonconductivity; to vary — to change; to lead to — to result in; recent — latest; advantage — disadvantage;

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  26. low — high; believable — unbelievable; to lose — to find; tiny — huge; liquid — solid; unexpected — expected; common — ordinary.

  27. Упражнение 20. Запомните выделенные слова и словосочетания.

  28. 1. The climate in this part of the world is the most suitable for people to live in. It is neither too hot, nor too cold. 2. Many lasers give off invisible radiation either infrared or ultraviolet. 3. There is the tropical zone on either side of the Equator. 4. It is possible to divide all countries into classes: developed and developing coun­tries. Various criteria may be used to include a particular country in either of the two categories. 5. The numbers are either odd or even. 6. Such satellites can contain either television cameras or photo­graphic equipment for transmitting pictures to Earth.

  29. «I see you are not a scientific person, my friend».

  30. «Why do you say that?»

  31. «You do not take good care of your car. You have no water in your radiator».

  32. «I thought that I had plenty of water».

  33. «You have no oil either. You will ruin your car if you run it without oil».

  34. «Have I plenty of water in the storage battery?»

  35. «No, you haven't a drop».

  36. «I haven't any air in my spare tire, either».

  37. «Have you any extra tubes?»

  38. «No, I haven't, but I have a good tube in the spare tire. I had four new tubes when I met a man who was having tire trouble. He hadn't an extra tube. I let him have my tubes. I suppose he was not a scientific person either. His car was in a worse condition than mine is.»

  39. How Did It All Begin?

  40. Do you ever wonder why people do or wear, or say certain things? Why do they shake hands when they meet? Many things you say and do could have reasons that date back thousands of years.

  41. For example, it is very strange to think that shaking hands — a friendly custom (обычай) today — was originally a means of keep­ing a stranger's (незнакомец) weapon hand where it could do no harm.

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  43. In primitive times, man never went about without some weapon of defence — usually a club (дубинка). Upon meeting a stranger a man could either stand and fight or turn away before discovering if the stranger was a friend or an enemy, or greet the stranger and possibly become friends.

  44. But how could he be sure the stranger would be friendly and how could the stranger trust in return? There was only one way to show friendly intentions and that was for both men to lay down their weapons and hold out empty hands. For added insurance, each would reach for the other's right hand. As long as both men's hands were safely clasped, neither could harm the other. Therefore, a handshake originally was a means of self-defence.

  45. Упражнение 21. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов и запомните их. teach, fighting, wore, frozen, letting, carried on, laid down.

  46. Упражнение 22. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря.

  47. The ancient Greeks are known to have been great watchers of the sky and also great thinkers. As they watched the sky night after night, it was natural for them to think that the Earth stood and the stars, planets, sun and moon were moving round the earth in space. They thought the sun to be between Venus and Mars. To explain the movement of the planets, however, was very difficult. Then one day a young scientist named Copernicus at Krakow University in Poland supposed that the sun and not the Earth should be the centre of everything. He was the first to explain properly our solar system. The ancient Greeks had made the mistake of thinking that because the stars and planets seemed to move as they looked at the sky, the Earth must stand. If you sat in a train and looked out at the trees, it would be easy to understand their mistake. The trees seem to be moving backwards, but really it is the train that is moving for­wards.

  48. CONVERSATION Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

  49. 1. What field of science studies the phenomenon of supercon­ductivity? (physics) 2. What can a nation have if it is the first to master this new field of science? (prestige, scientific advantage, economic and military benefits) 3. What is superconductivity? (the loss of electrical resistivity by a material on being cooled to temper-

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  51. atures near absolute zero) 4. What is absolute zero? (0 Kelvin or —273 °C) 5. What scientists worked in the field of superconductivity research? (Dutch physicist K. Onnes, Russian physicists L. Landau and V. Ginzburg, and a number of American scientists) 6. What materials are the best super conductors? (ceramic materials) 7. What are the potential technical uses of superconductivity? (nu­clear research, power generation, electronics, etc.)

  52. Exercise 2. Make a sentence out of the two parts.

  1. Recent achievements in super­conductivity research are

  2. They may be compared with

  1. Superconductivity is known to

  2. While carrying out his low temperature research he

  3. For 50 years after the discov­ery there was no

  1. 6. In the 1950s Russian and American physicists made a great contribution

  2. 7. Research in the field of super­ conductivity became especially active

  1. fundamental theory to explain this unexpected phenomenon.

  2. found the electrical resistivity of mercury to disappear when cooled to the temperature of 4 Kelvin.

  3. to the development of super­conductivity theory.

  1. 4. have been discovered by a Dutch physicist.

  1. of great importance for science and technology.

  2. since the discovery of a super­conductive metallic ceramics.

  3. physics discoveries that led to the development of electronics and nuclear power.

  1. Exercise 3. Read and learn.

  2. Professor Brown: Hello, glad to meet you, prof. Smith, haven't seen

  3. you for ages, since I left the University.

  4. Prof. Smith: How do you do, prof. Brown, I haven't expected to

  5. see you here. Are you interested in superconductiv­ity problems? By the way, how are you making your living? I haven't heard anything about your work lately. I spent the last two years in Geneva as a member of a special UN committee.

  6. Pr. В.: I am with Bell Telephone company. It is a global

  7. leader in electrical engineering. And I deal with new technologies.

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