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The future perfect tense

БУДУЩЕЕ СОВЕРШЕННОЕ/ПЕРФЕКТНОЕ ВРЕМЯ

Будущее совершенное время выражает завершенность действия, его результат, который будет достигнут к определенному моменту в будущем.

ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Для образования этой грамматической формы используется вспомогательный глагол to have в форме будущего времени (will have) и причастие II (Participle II) смыслового глагола для всех лиц и чисел:

I, you, we, they, he, she, it will have done something.

I will have gone; we will have studied; they will have liked; you will have read; he will have done; she will have been; it will have rained

УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ

Будущее перфектное время употребляется для выражения будущего действия, которое уже закончится до определенного момента в будущем, поэтому его можно назвать предбудущим.

Этот момент в будущем, до которого закончится действие, может быть выражен:

1. Обстоятельством времени с предлогом by:

by five o’clock I’ll have never seen this film by five o’clock.

by the end of the year We’ll have learnt this poem by the end of the year.

by October She’ll have already returned by October.

By this time next week they’ll have left the town.

By the end of the week Jack will have already written his report on History.

By the time we get there, it will have already stopped raining.

2. Другим будущим действием, выраженным the Present Simple в придаточном предложении времени или условия с такими союзами, как:

before She will have typed everything before you return.

when When you see her next, she’ll have taken her last exam.

Exercises

Exercise 224. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the use of the Future Perfect.

l. By the time my parents get back home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. 2. The tourists hope that the tornado will have finished before they arrive in California. 3. Next month I will have known Rick for twenty years. 4. By the time you start writing your test I will have finished mine. 5. When you drop in at my place, I will have painted the door. 6. Will you have arranged everything by tomorrow? 7. We shall have left by the time you arrive. 8. They will have repaired your car by then. 9. The decorator will have painted the room by Tuesday. 10. I'll already have done the work by the time you come back. 11. I still won't have finished reading the book by four o'clock. 12. He will have left by now. 13. Will you have written the essay by tomorrow? 14. We shall have arranged everything by that time. 15. Will you have come home by 5 o'clock? 16. We shall have erected this dam by 2010. 17. In three years' time I shall have taken my degree. 18. John will not have signed the contract before we come. 19. Will you have repaired the watch by Friday? 20. John will have examined the car well before he buys it.

Exercise 225. Make these sentences negative and interrogative.

1. She will have cooked dinner by the time you come. 2. The teacher will have looked through all our exercise-books by the end of the week. 3. The film will already have started when we get there. 4. I shall have read the book by next Monday. 5. My parents will have gone to bed when we come back from the theatre. 6. The students will have passed their exams by July. 7. We shall have finished our work by the time the bell rings.

Exercise 226. What will life be like in the year 2100? Complete the sentences using the Future Perfect.

Example: By 2100 the world's population will have increased to around 30000 mln.

1. Life …… (become) more automated by then. 2. Computers …… (take over) many of the jobs that people do today. 3. The earth's supplies of oil, coal and gas …… (run out). 4. …… scientists (find) other sources of energy? 5. How …… education …… (change)? 6. …… we (find) a way to feed all the people in the world? 7. …… the climate (change) greatly? 8. Many new medicines …… (be invented) that will save life of many sick people.

Exercise 227. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Future Perfect Tense.

1. I hope you …… (go) to bed by eleven. 2. She …… (listen) to the poem many times before she understands all the words. 3. They …… (get) you into trouble before you can say knife. 4. I hope the telegram …… (come) before they start for the North. 5. The news of their marriage …… (reach) their village before they get there. 6. She …… (be) there many times before she meets him again. 7. They believe the ship …… (come) back by the end of the navigation. 8. I suppose she …… (make) some provisions for Maggie before she leaves for America. 9. They …… (take) their last exam by the first of July. 10. He …… (write) the last chapter of his new book by the end of the year. 11. By the time you come I …… (clean) the flat and …… (cook) dinner. 12. By next winter he …… (sold) all his things. 13. He …… (leave) when you arrive. 14. By next month he …… (write) his fourth play. 15. We …… (solve) this difficult problem by the end of the week. 16. The wind …… (drop) by then. 17. When the sun sets I …… (read) this book. 18. If you come at nine they …… (have) dinner. 19. If you ring me up after nine o'clock, I …… (speak) to the doctor. 20. We …… (travel) twenty miles more before we cross the frontier. 21. Next year we …… (be) together for ten years.

Exercise 228. Complete the sentences using the Future Perfect Tense of the suggested verbs.

1. By the time you meet him he …… (do a lot of work). 2. By the time the lessons are over the pupils …… (run out of the classroom). 3. Before the bell rings the children …… (prepare everything for the lesson). 4. When my letter reaches you I …… (move to New York). 5. Before I hear from my sister again I …… (make many inquiries about her). 6. Before supper my father …… (look through evening papers). 7. By the time we get there the sun …… (set). 8. Before you learn to speak English fluently you …… (do many exercises). 9. By the time you get your pay she …… (spend all the money). 10. By the time he consults his lawyer his posi­tion …… (become much worse). 11. – What time will you be home? – I …… (finish) my work by half past eight, so I should be home about nine. 12. Tom and Liz …… (live) here for four years next June. 13. This chess game is going to last ages. They …… (not finish) it until midnight. 14. …… you (read) this book by the time it’s due back to the library? 15. I …… (make) an apple–pie before you come back 16. Many natural resources …… (disappear) by the end of the century

Ехercise 229. Translate into English.

1. Я надеюсь, что напишу дипломную работу к концу учебного года. 2. Решишь ли ты все свои проблемы до нашей следующей встречи? 3. К концу года цены на бензин вновь вырастут. 4. У меня короткая стрижка, но к лету волосы вырастут. 5. Садовник подстрижет кусты и деревья, расчистит дорожки, сожжет опавшую листву до наступления зимы. 6. Не беспокойся, платье сошьют к выпускному вечеру. 7. К тому времени, как ты доберешься домой, пицца будет приготовлена. 8. Программист завершит новую программу до назначенного срока. 9. Учительница обещает, что проверит наши контрольные работы к следующему уроку. 10. Завтра к двум часам мы уже сдадим все экзаме­ны. 11. К тому времени, как вы вернетесь, я уже уеду. 12. Если вы позвоните в восемь часов, то они еще не приедут. 13. Они надеются, что отремонтируют квар­тиру к осени. 14. Мы напишем статью к утру, но мы не закончим иллюстрации. 15. Я окончу школу к лету. 16. Надеюсь, что я найду работу к концу года. 17. Мы уверены, что узнаем новости к вечеру. 18. Если вы при­дете до девяти часов утра, то они еще не уйдут. 19. Она уже накроет на стол до того, как придут гости.

Exercise 230. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Future Indefinite, the Future Perfect, the Present Indefinite and the Present Perfect.

1. Mother …… (write) a letter to her tomorrow. 2. I …… (read) the book by the end of the week; you may have it then. 3. By the end of the term we …… (learn) about one hundred new words. 4. If you ring me up after five I …… (speak) to the director. 5. I …… (go) to the sports ground as soon as I …… (finish) this exercise. 6. We …… (go) to the theatre or a concert if we …… (pass) our examinations successfully. 7. You …… (do) a lot of your work by the end of this month. 8. In a year's time he …… (take) to some more serious sort of job. 9. I …… (go) away as soon as I …… (speak) to him. 10. By the end of this month I …… (finish) reading «The Picture of Dorian Grey», and I …… (begin) to read «Jane Eyre». 11. If you do not make a note of it, you …… (forget) it by tomorrow. 12. By this time next year I …… (leave) school and …… (be) in Moscow. 13. I …… (get) through the greater part of the work when you come.

Exercise 231. Complete the sentences using a sui­table modifier of time among those given below.

1. We hope our luggage will have arrived ...; 2. They will have become worst enemies ...; 3. Everything will have been ready ...; 4. He will have been in film industry for years ...; 5. We shall have packed our suitcases long before ...; 6. The children will have decorated the fir-tree ...; 7. The doctor will have exa­mined his last patient ...; 8. They will have made some arrangements for the boy ...; 9. People will have forgot­ten him and his book long before ...; 10. She will have done the shopping before ...; 11. He will have looked through many books before...; 12. They will have arrived at some agreement be­fore...;

a) before the train starts; b) before he is fifty; c) before they spend a week; d) by the time the children come back from school; e) by 10 o'clock; f) the taxi comes; g) before they leave England forever; h) by 3 p.m.; i) he comes back from his office; j) he dies; k) the conference is over; l) he finds some useful infor­mation.

Exercise 232. Supply the required future tense instead of the infinitives in brackets.

1. I hope you …… (not forget) all this by tomorrow. 2. I think she …… (cook) dinner by the time Mother …… (co­me) home. 3. He …… (be) a pensioner for ten years by next spring. 4. I hope they …… (tell) her the news by the time we …… (come). 5. Ask him when he …… (finish) packing. 6. What you …… (do) when I …… (call) on you at 5 tomor­row? 7. He …… (search) every corner of your room before he …… (leave). 8. The plane …… (approach) Moscow at this time tomorrow. 9. By the time you …… (get) home we …… (prepare) everything for the party. 10. They …… (come) to see us next Sunday. 11. By the end of the year we …… (be) through with our experimental work. 12. The doctor …… (examine) his last patient at this time tomorrow.

Exercise 233. Translate the sentences into English using the Future Indefinite, the Future Continuous and the Future Perfect.

1. Он вернется домой к 15 августа. 2. Через неделю в это время наш теплоход будет прибли­жаться к берегам Кубы. 3. Я буду ждать вас завтра в это же время. 4. Через два дня студенты начнут сдавать экзамены. 5. Не приставай к нему, он очень волнуется: завтра в это время он будет давать свой первый концерт. 6. Надеюсь, к 10 часам вечера кон­церт уже закончится, и через полчаса дети будут уже дома. 7. Мы уберем квартиру и накроем на стол до того, как придут гости. 8. Он говорит, что при­дет на вокзал проводить нас. 9. –Что вы будете делать завтра в это время? – Буду давать свой первый урок в школе. 10. Строители закончат новую линию метро к 10 мая. 11. Убери свою комнату прежде, чем поедешь за город. 12. Он все поймет раньше, чем ты начнешь свои объяснения.

Exercise 234. How good is your maths? Can you work out the answers?

1. It’s a quarter to six. Melanie is putting something in the oven. It needs to be in the oven for an hour and a half. When will it have cooked?

2. It’s seven o’clock in the evening and Andrew is starting to write an essay. He writes one page every fifteen minutes. He plans to finish the essay at midnight. How many pages will he have written?

3. It’s Monday morning and Sarah is travelling to work. It’s twenty miles from her home to the office. How far will she have travelled to and from work by the time she gets home on Friday?

4. Matthew is doing press-ups – one every two seconds. How many will he have done after five minutes?

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