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ИДЗ 2 Английский язык группы Васильевой.doc
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2. Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) a well-known fact; 6) above-ground part;

2) different kinds of soil; 7) permanent stability;

3) construction area; 8) foundation design;

4) take place; 9) preliminary leveling;

5) major parts of building; 10) shallow foundations.

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) верхний слой; 6) трещины в стенах;

2) строительство зданий; 7) нижний уровень;

3) фундамент здания; 8) рабочая нагрузка;

4) прямой контакт; 9) собственный вес;

5) защищать стены; 10) глубокий фундамент.

4. Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык.

1) excavate; 6) nature;

2) build; 7) construct;

3) differ; 8) notice;

4) found; 9) settle;

5) easy; 10) rare.

5. Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов (общий, альтернативный, разделительный, специальный: а) к подлежащему, б) к второстепенному члену предложения).

6. Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные, времена групп Continuous и Perfect активного и пассивного залога; согласование времен; функции глаголов to be, to have; усилительные конструкции; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные:

  1. Construction of any building usually starts with excavation.

  2. Further excavation may take place only after the upper organic stratum has been removed.

  3. Modern buildings have three major parts.

  4. Unfortunately, such strata have rarely been found in the places where men have wanted to build.

  5. Therefore, some means have had to be provided to spread the loads more widely or carry them down to rock or firmer ground at a lower level.

7. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

  1. Which part of organic soil is of great importance for excavation?

  2. What is the function of a foundation?

  3. What may cause cracking in the walls of buildings?

  4. What are the loads supported by foundations?

  5. What parts does dead load include?

  6. What parts does live load include?

  7. What are two basic types of foundations?

8. Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2-3 предложения).

9. Составьте реферат текста (10-15 предложений).

10. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.


1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:


From the history of floor systems. The continuous slab constitutes a self-contained floor system, though it may be desirable for non-structural reasons to add a separate top surface and a separate ceiling below. Before the development of the reinforced-concrete slab, the nearest equivalents were the floor composed of beams of timber or stone set immediately alongside one another, and the floor provided by a more or less solid fill above a brick or concrete vault. The first of these involved a very extravagant use of material and hence expenditure of effort, so it usually gave way to a more differentiated form with increasing skill in construction. The second was more efficient, inherently strong, and fireproof, and continued to be used for these reasons until supplanted by the reinforced-concrete slab. But it had the drawbacks of greater overall depth than alternative forms, and of greater weight plus the generation of outward thrust, so that stronger walls were called for.

The alternative to these forms was always some composite system, with beams as the principal spanning and load-bearing elements. In the commonest of these systems, still widely used, light timber beams span at short intervals between opposite walls and are covered by boards or twigs and rammed earth.

Today the usual floor system, apart from intermediate floors within single dwellings, is the reinforced-concrete slab with or without projecting beams. For very heavy loadings and wide spans, a grid of beams within a bay may be used to stiffen and strengthen the slab without requiring it to be of great thickness throughout. In all cases, the slab has a great advantage over the earlier systems because it is a good horizontal diaphragm, binding the walls or columns together and distributing any side loads between them.

Floor.Floors belong to one of the most important functional components of a building. Floors influence the acoustics of a room: it depends on whether a hard or soft flooring is used. Floors also react in various ways with light. Some flooring materials are known to produce mirrorlike reflection. As to dark flooring materials, they, on the contrary, absorb light and this absorption makes a room darker. As to the light materials, they reflect light and help create a lighter and brighter room.

Floors are subject to moisture, dirt, and dust. They are also subject to the action of feet and the load of furniture. That’s why they require more cleaning and maintenance work than any other components of a building.

It should be taken into account that floors should be designed in such a way as to deal with the problems of sanitation, fire-resistance, and combustibility. They should also be designed so as to deal with the structural loads they will place on the frame of the building.

Poured-in-place floors. One should strictly follow the job practice for making poured-in-place floors. The measured materials for making the mastic must be put into the concrete mixer in the strictly correct order. The water and the emulsion should be carefully mixed till the mastic becomes homogeneous.

When making a poured-in-place floor, mastic is applied with a spray gun and its nozzle must be kept away from the floor surface.

Stairway. Practically every modern building is supplied with stairways of some kind. A stairway is designed to provide a means of access between different floor levels of a building. Nowadays stairways are produced of various construction materials but the most popular among them are timber and reinforced concrete. Of them timber may be used for domestic stairs of all kinds because of its economical availability. As to reinforced concrete it is popular because of its durable qualities, great resistivity to decay and great resistance to fire. It should be taken into account that domestic timber stairs must be designed for safe and comfortable use by people of different ages.

What is required of stair construction? The main requirements are the following. Firstly, there should be guaranteed equal rise for every step and landing. Secondly, the maximum pitch length to the horizontal must be 42˚. Thirdly, stair length must include not less that two rises and not greater than sixteen.

Underfloor services.In the offices and computer facilities, floors are frequently used for the distribution of electrical and communication wiring.

In computer rooms and offices supplied with a large number of electronic machines raised access flooring is frequently used. Raised access flooring is a raised floor surface. It consists of small individually removable panels. Under these panels, wiring, ductwork, and other services may be installed. This type of flooring provides unlimited capacity for wiring, piping, and ductwork. The space below the flooring can serve for air distribution. Any changes in underfloor systems can be made quite easily. Conditioned air can be supplied to computer rooms through the space below the raised access flooring.

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