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carbon dioxide, chloride, cyanide, fluoride, lead, potassium, sulfide, and urea. Analytical pH meters or meters designed specifically for this application are used to calculate concentrations.

Finally an increasing number of portable and direct reading instruments are now available to detect and quantitate environmental pollutants. Most of these measure airborne particulates and dissolved molecules and operate on such diverse principles as aerosol photometry, chemiluminescence, combustion, and polarography. Elemental analyzers have been developed for carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur using IR, chemiluminescence, and fluorescence, respectively. Analyses can be completed in about 1 minute if the samples are gases, liquids, or small solids, and within 10 minutes if solid samples are larger. These devices are microprocessor controlled, contain built-in printers, and are used to analyze materials including gasolines, pesticides, protein solutions, and wastewater.


Hayes, A. W., ed. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. London: Taylor and Francis, 2000.

Morel, F. M. M., and J. G. Heirig. Principles and Applications of Aquatic Chemistry. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1993.

Nelson, A. H. Organic Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994.

Pickering, W. F. Pollution Evaluation: The Quantitative Aspects. New York: Dekker 1977.

Rand, G. M., and S. N. Petrocelli. Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology. Washington, DC: Hemisphere, 1985.

Rouessae, F., A. Rouessae, and M. B. Waldron. Chemical Analysis: Modern Instrumentation, Methods and Techniques. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2000.

Thomas, J. J., P. B. Bond, and I. Sunshine, eds. Guidelines for Analytical Toxicology Programs, vols. 1 and 2. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1977.

Wagner, R. E. ed. Guide to Environmental Analytical Methods, 4th ed. Scheenectady, NY: Genium Publishing, 1998.

Ware, G. W., ed. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. New York: SpringerVerlag. (This excellent series of review articles is approaching Volume 180 and covers all aspects of toxicology.)

Williams, P. L., R. C. Jones and S. M. Roberts, eds. The Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2000.

Zweig, G. ed. Analytical Methods for Pesticides and Plant Growth Regulators. New York: Academic Press. (This was a multi-volume series appearing between 1973 and 1989 that contains analytical methods for the analysis of food and food additives, fungicides, herbicides, nematicides, pheromones, rodenticides, and soil fumigants.)

Web Sites

Instrument manufacturers all have detailed Web sites containing considerable information, not only on their equipment but on theory of operations, methods to maximize sensitivity, etc.

The following are some government Web sites that can be searched for analytical methods:

http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/ (A number of links to US EPA analytical methods)