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16

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8

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122

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CKOro IIIOKa, KOf)J;a ueHbI Boo6IUe He MOryT MeHHTbCH.

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rnaas 6. nOlfeMY npOMCXQART pe148CCMM

123

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JI~HBaIOTCH.

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PE = C + IP + G + NX

(6.1)

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cpe,n:CTB.

 

 

 

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uHH,IP.

 

 

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KOB.

 

 

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ro rrpoH3Bo.uCTBa.

 

 

 

 

 

)lmI: <t>aKTH'leCKHX pacxo,n:OB, Y, KeHHC HCrrOJIb30BaJI TO JKe ypaBHeHHe, KOTopoe Mhl HC­

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Y=C+I+G+NX

(6.2)

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A renepb - HeMHOJKKO anre6pw

BhI 3H8JlH, 'ITO 3TO HeH36e>KHo: H8CTYJIHJlO BpeMH 8Jlre6paH'IeCKHX ynpUCHeHHj;(. KaKoBa Hawa UeJIb? Onpe,neJIHTb 3KOHOMH'IeCKOe paBHOBeCHe B Mo,neJIH KeAHca, HCnOJIb3YJ1 HaWH

BbIlUlIOlUHeCR MaTeMaTH'IeCKHe cnOC06HOCTH. (11T1lK, KY,na )ICe R HX no,neB8Jl?)

Bo-nepBhIX, HaM HYXHO onpe,neJIHTb ¢YHK~UIO nompe6.neHUJI - cnoco6 paCtieTa 06111ero nOTPe6JIeHHH, - KqTOPYIO MbI no,nCTaBHM B ypaBHeHHe (6.1). B maBe 4 npe,ncTaBJIeHa CJIe­

.llYIOlUaR lPOpMYJIa AJUI pactieTa nOTPe6JIeHIDl:

C = Co + c (l - t) Y.

(6.3)

3a

BceMH ,lleTaJIHMH 06pawaj;(TeCb K rJIaDe 4. A ce1t'lac Bce, 'iTO BaM ,neACTBHTeJIbHO HYJICHO

3HaTb

06 3TOA lPoPMYJIe, T1lK 3TO TO, 'iTO 60JIee BbICOKHj;( ypoBeHb ,nOXO,nOB (y) npHBO,llHT K

60JIee BhICOKOMY ypoBHIO noope6JIeHIDl (C).

 

ECJlH BhI nO,llCTaBHTe ypaBHeHHe (6.3) B ypaBHeHHe (6.1), TO nOJIyqHTe:

 

 

PE =Co +c(1- t)Y+ jP +G + NX

(6.4)

ECJIH BbI BHHMaTeJIbHO nOCMOTPHTe, TO YBH,llHTe, 'ITO 3TO ypaBHeHHe nOKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO 06lUaH CYMMa 3anJIaHHpOBaHHhIX paCXO,llOB Ha TOBaPbI H ycJIyrH B 3KOHOMHKe (PE) 3aBHCHT OT 06mero ,nOXO,lla B 3KOHOMHKe (n. qeM BhIwe ypoBeHb o6w;ero ,lloxo,lla, TeM 60JIbWe ,lleHer

JIIO.llH nJIaHHPYIOT nOTPaTHTb.

XopoWHA cnoc06 ynpOCTHTb 3TO ypaBHeHHe - 3TO C03.llaTb nepeMeHHyK) A H on­ pe,neJIHTb ee CJIe.llYIOW;HM 06p83oM:

A =Co+IP+G+NX

126

"'SCTb II. MSIqJ08ICOHOMMICS - HSylCS 06 HOHOMlfCfeCICOM POCM H Crs6MRbHOcnr

ECJIH Bb! c,n;eJIaeTe 3TO, paBeHCTBO (6.4) 6y,neT BbIrJIH,lJ;eTb HeMHoro rrpIDITHee:

 

PE=A+cO-t)Y.

(6.5)

IlepeMeHHaJI A 03HaqaeT aBmOHOMHble pacxoobl, rro,n KOTOPbIMH 3KOHOMHCTbI rrOHHMaIOT qaCTb 3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHbIX pacxo,noB, KOTOpbIe He 3aBHCHT OT ,nOXO,nOB (Y). qacTb 3aIIJIaJIHpo­ BaHHbIx pacxo,nOB, KOTopbIe 3aBHCHT OT ,n;OXO,nOB, C (1 - t) Y, H3BeCTHa KaK UHOy14UpOBaHHble paCXOObl.

,LlJuI rrOHHMaHIDI HH,DyUHpOBaHHbIX pacxo,noB rrpe,nCTllBbTe ce6e, qTO eCJIH t - 3TO YPOBeHb rro,noXO,ZJ;Horo HaJIOra, 3HaqHT, (1 - t) Y- CYMMa, KOTOPaJI ,nQIDKHa OCTaTbCH Ha pacJ(o,nbI rrOCJIe yruIaTbI HaJIOroB. 11 H3 3TOH CYMMbI qaCTb C TPaTHTCH Ha rrOTpe6JIeHHe, TaK qTO C (1 - t) Y co­

06UlHT BaM, KaKJIe pacxo,nbI "HH,ZJ;yIUfpoBaHbI" ,nOXO,nOM B pa3Mepe Y.

Ha pHC. 6.6 3llBHCHMOCTb (6.5) H306plUKeHa rpa<t>~ecKHB BH,ZJ;e 1CpUBOU 3aTUlaHupOBaHHbIX

pacxoOoB.

3annaHMpOBaHH~epacxOA~

PE

3annaHMpOBaHHbie paCXQ,II,b1

PE =A+c( 1- t)Y

AOXOA, B~nycK, Y

PKC. 6.6. KPK8SR 3snnSHKp08SHHblX PSCXO~08

,LlJuI TOro 1ff06hI HaRTH KOHKpeTHoe PllBHOBeCHe B KeHHCHaHCKOH Mo,neJIH, 3arrOMHHTe, ~O see B03MO:lKHbIe BapHaHTbI pllBHOBeCHbIX COCTOHHHH BbIplUKeHbI CJIe,nYJOUlHM paBeHCTBOM:

PE= Y.

(6.6)

3To ypaBHeHHe MoxeT 6bITb rrpoqHTaHO KaK "3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHbIe pacxo,nbI PllBHbI <t>aKTH­ qeCKHM pacxo,naM. (IloMHHTe, 1ffO B 3KOHOMHKe Y PllBHO KaK o6UleMY ,noxo.ny, TaK H 06UlHM pacxo,naM, rroTOMY ~o Bee pacXO,nbI ecTb qbHMH-TO ,nOXO,naMH.)

~BCHKaJI CH'rya~IDI, Kor,na PE = Y, eCTb paBHOBeCHe. IloqeMY? IloToMY, qTO eCJIH 3KOHOMHKa ,nOCTHfaeT TOqKH, r,ne PE = Y, 3HaqHT, HHKTO He HMeeT HHKaKOH rrpH­

qHHbI H3MeIDITb CBoe rrOBe,neHHe. IloTPe6HTeJIH rrOTPe6AAIOT CTOJIbKO, CKOJIbKO OHH 3aIIJIaHHpOBaJIH (C). focy,naPCTBO rrOKYIIaeT CToJIbKO rrpO.nyKTa, CKOJIbKO XOqeT rrpHo6pecTH (G). 3apy6e:lKHl>Ie rroTpe6HTeJIH rrOKYIIaIOT CTOJIbKO TOBapOB, CKOJIbKO

rn8186.nO~8MynpoMcx~Tp8q8CCMM

127

OHH HaMepeBaJIHCb IIpH06peCTH (NX). H, 'ITO CaMOe BaJKHOe, c!>HpMbI TpanlT Ha HHBeCTHUHH poBHO CTOJIbKO, CKOJIbKO OHH IIJIaHHpOBaJIH - OTCIO,lla CJIe,llYeT, qTO MarepHaJIbHble 3arraCbI He H3MeIDIIOTCg HeO)(OfJl;aHHO.

ECJIH 3arirraHHpoBaHHhle paCXO,!lbI paBHhl c!>aKTH'IeCKHM pacxo~. Bhl .neHCTBHTeJIbHO IIO­

~aere paBHOBeCHe, IIOTOMY qTQ Ka.)({,lU>IH IIOJlY'laeT XeJIaeMoe. H HH Y KOro HeT CTHMYJIa .llJljJ:

H3MeHeHHjJ: CBOero IIOBe,lleHUjI.

Gf)Bhl Moxere orrpe.neJIHTb paBHOBeCHoe 3HaqeHHe lIpO.ayKTa, KOTOPhlR g CJ>6l1paIOCb

!: ., Ha3BaTh Y, IIo.nCTaBHB ypaBHeHHe (6.5) B ypaBHeHHe (6.6). ECJIH BLI c.neJIaere 3TO, y Bac IIOJIyqHTCg CJIe.ZJ;yIOmee:

I

(6.7)

Y = ---- A..

I - c(l - t)

 

Onpe,qenfleAf pSSHOSeCJfe rpacPJflfeCKJf

EcJIH paBeHCTBO (6.7) qepecqyp rryraeT Bac, rrpo.nOJIXaHre qHTaTh .naJIbllJe. HaMHoro JIer­ qe OIIpe.neJIHTb paBHOBeCHe B MO,lleJIH KeHHca rpac!>WIecKH. ~ TOro 'IT06hl c.neJIaTh 3TO, Bhl IIOMemaeTe rpac1>HK paBeHCTBa PE = Y Ha TOT xe rpac!>HK, r.ne HaxO.ZJ;HTCg rpac!>HK paBeHCTBa

PE = A + C (1 - t) Y, KaK IIOKa3aHO Ha pHC. 6.7. ToqKa, r.ne ,llBe JIHHHH IIepeCeKaIOTCg, 6y.neT TOqKOH paBHOBeCUjI. B 3TOH TOqKe 3aIIJIaHHpOBaHHLIe paCXO,!lbI TOqHO paBHhl c!>aKTWIeCKHM paCXO,ZJ;aM B 3KOHOMHKe.

3TO paBHOBeCHe Cma6UJ1bHO (ycmou14u8o); IIO.n 3THM IIO.ZJ;pa3YMeBaeTCg, qTO eCJIH 3KOHO­ MHKa HaquHaeTCg Ha JII060M ypOBHe .nOXO,llOB, OTJIWIHOM OT YOHa BCKope B03BpamaeTCg

KY. To, qTO 3aCTaBJUleT ee B03BpamaTbCg K Y,- 3T0 H3MeHeHHg 3aIIaCOB MaTepHaJIbHhlX o6oPOTHhlX cpe.nCTB.

3annaHHpOBaHHble paCXO,!lbl

 

ll>aKTH'leCKHe pacxoJl,bl

 

PE

PE=Y

 

 

3annaHHpOBaHHble paCXO,!lbl

 

 

PE=A+c(1-t)Y

45°

y

lloxOA, BblnycK, Y

PHC. 6.7. PSSHOS8CH8 S MO/J.8I1H K8HHC8

128

'IaCrb II. MaKP03ICOHOMIIICa - HaylCa 06 3ICOHOMII"eCICOM poere II cTB6ItnllHocllf

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