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John adams (1735-1826)

John Adams was one of the most 1________of the public men of his day. Upon graduation from Harvard College he 2 the law for his career. In 1764 he married Abigail Smith, who, in her own right, became one of the famous char- acters of American History. Noteworthy 3 came to John Adams in law and in civic affairs. In the troubled time of 1771 he 4 a seat in the Massachusetts Assembly. Deep concern about Colonial grievances inspired his 5 against the mother country. No one saw more clearly than he that the logical outcome of 6 would be war and 7_ . The fervent patriotism of John Adams gave 8 ' to the Continental Congress, certainly to the Declaration of Independence — and 9 in his selection to represent the United States abroad. He 10____ a loan from Holland, 11 in making a favorable peace, and 12 as the first minister to Great Britain. In 1788 John Adams returned from Europe in time to have his ability, 13 , and achievement rewarded with the vice-presidency of the United States, the first man to be so 14 . As a candidate of the Federalist Party, he 15 Thomas Jefferson in 1796, and became the only man 16___________ eight years as Vice-President and then to become President.

Exercise 32

Find out some more information about the politicians to add it to what you have learned about them from the text. Now complete the following entries.

  1. Alexander Hamilton — a self-made man, energetic, forth­right and blunt to the point of arrogance, he was physically and intellectually bold, and extremely loyal...

  2. Thomas Jefferson — idealistic and ideological, he saw him­self as the guardian of the revolutionary spirit. Politically cunning, he was backhanded and ambitious...

  3. Benjamin Franklin — clever, industrious, and witty, he was also a ladies' man and bon vivant who championed the abo­litionist cause near the end of his life...

  4. John Adams — a shrewd judge of character, he was a hands-on committeeman. Though more practical than Jefferson, he also wanted to be seen as a gentleman...

  5. Aaron Burr — the most self-assured and aristocratic of the founders, he was also the most like a modern politician, openly working for his own interests...

  6. George Washington — solid, principled, and loyal, he was an officer and a gentleman. A confident delegator, he was also a stern and sometimes unforgiving leader...

Exercise 33

Prepare a 5-minute talk about one of the American Founding Fathers.

Exercise 34

Read the following sentences and

a) mark all the words relating to leadership:

  1. Most countries align themselves with a major power whose policies they agree with.

  2. The more powerful countries are often accused of bullying the smaller countries into voicing agreement with their poli­cies.

  3. Her resignation is irrevocable now, another person has al­ready been hired to replace her.

  4. The tyrannical rule of the family over the country ended when its most important members were assassinated.

  5. She is known for her astuteness in business matters; that is one reason why she is a boss.

  6. Everyone admired his ingenuity in solving the problem.

  7. The president presides over the House of Representatives in that country.

  8. The people feared that their conquerors would impose a sys­tem of totalitarianism.

  9. The government tried to subjugate the opposition party.

  10. The members of the nobility used to hold all the power in that country, but now the common people are gaining power.

  11. The overthrown government leaders are now living in exile.

  12. The party is reactionary and resists all change.

  13. He is at the pinnacle of his career right now.

  14. A good manager delegates responsibility to his employees, he does not try to do everything himself.

  15. The central authority in a federation is sometimes called the federal government.

  16. Bureaucrats have a reputation for being inflexible.

  17. Spain was a very conservative country during the regime of Francisco Franco.

  18. Students with outstanding academic records may win schol­arship.

  19. Someone who supports moderate politics wants change to occur a little at a time; someone who supports radical change wants to see changes made all at once, often through violent means.

  1. Train service in Japan is said to be exceptionally efficient.

  2. Supporters of the war said that its unfavorable public image was created by the media.

  3. The boss does not treat his subordinates very well.

  4. The supervisor must assess the job performance of each work­er to decide whom to promote.

  5. She merits a rise in pay, but the company seniority system may prevent her from getting it.

  6. The new owner's utopian ideas about how to run the factory soon changed when he saw the realistic problems.

  7. A good judge must act with integrity at all times and not be guilty of unethical behavior.

  8. Emulation of a hero is common among teenagers.

  9. He showed a lot of enterprise when he founded that company.

  10. The companies had gained such power that they were very formidable opponents.

  11. In the struggle for world power, both countries would like to be dominant.

b) group the marked words under the three headings and trans- late them:

noun verb/verb combination adjective

c) match each verb with its equivalents:

1) to align with a) to acquire, obtain, secure, attain, win

2) to bully into b) to govern, run, be in power, reign, hold office

3) to resign c) to file, store, register, document, chart

4) to hire d) to sanction, give permission, permit

5) to replace e) to oust, get rid of, dispose of, purge, topple

6) to rule f) to estimate, evaluate, appraise, sum up

7) to subjugate g) to deserve, earn, have by right

8) to oppose h) to monopolize, control, regulate, govern

9) to gain i) to oversee, manage, run, be in charge, lead

10) to overthrow j) to unite, combine, join forces, come together

11) to exile k) to upgrade, elevate, advance

12) to resist 1) to succeed, change, substitute for, take over

13) to authorize m)to carry out, execute, implement, accomplish

14) to record n) to defeat, make obedient, subordinate

15) to supervise o) to fight against, stand up to, hold out against

16) to assess p) to copy, imitate, follow suit, do like wise, jump on the bandwagon, model oneself on

17) to perform q) to leave, quit, retire

18) to promote r) to advocate, back, side with, throw your weight behind

19) to merit s) to regard with disapproval, object to, voice opposition to, be against

20) to emulate t) to put pressure on, pressurize into, browbeat into

21) to dominate u) to banish, expel, deport, extradite, repartriate, evict

22) to support v) to employ, engage, appoint, recruit, take on

  1. add words to every line to complete the collocations:

to hold/gain/.. .power

major/world/.. power

federal/conservative/.. .government

Exercise 35

Translate the fallowing text into English using the active vocab­ulary.

Политический лидер — личность, оказывающая посто­янное преобладающее (omnipotent) влияние на все обще­ство или на отдельное (single) политическое объединение, организацию. Политическое лидерство, как правило, пря­мо связано с должностью в общественной иерархии (social hierarchy), с обладанием (wield) властью. В этом проявляет­ся его первая сторона. Вторая неформальная сторона поли­тического лидера выражена в выдающихся или, по крайней мере, неординарных, индивидуальных качествах человека, его способности повести за собой других людей, в призна­нии (acknowledge) за ним права на руководство со стороны общества.

Лидерство имеет сложную природу, и теория черт (theory of features) определяет природу (essence) лидерства выдаю­щимися качествами личности: умом, волей, энергией, орга­низационными способностями, компетентностью, готовно­стью взять на себя (assume) ответственность. Существуют разнообразные классификации политического лидерства. Широко распространено предложенное М. Вебером деление политических лидеров на традиционных (вожди племени, монархи), чей авторитет основан на обычае, традиции; ру­тинных — это лидеры, избранные демократическим путем; и харизматических, наделенных (endowed with), по мнению масс, особыми выдающимися качествами и способностями к руководству.


Discuss the following. Which is better for a country to have a routine leader or a charismatic one? Why?

Read the article below and do the task that follows it.

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