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  1. They were accused of wasting public money, but they refut­ed this charge with the claim that they had wide public sup­port.

  2. Once again the military took control.

  3. The growing hostility between the two parties is threatening to throw the country into civil war.

  4. When the scale of corruption was revealed they turned against the leader they had once highly respected.

  5. During those long years in exile the revolutionaries cherished hope of return.

  6. The price of oil dropped to a new low.

  7. To oppose the football hooligans the police equipped them­selves with riot shields and tear gas.

  8. The TV station was occupied and held for a few hours.

  9. More recent barriers are designed to give way if spectators push forward too violently.

  10. The Prime Minister has cherished the idea of restructuring Parliament for at least 4 years.

Exercise 51

Fill in the gaps with the words from the list above.

1. He was one of the best negotiators and was by his colleagues.

  1. Demonstrators through the gates, demand­ing the President's resignation.

  2. The Chinese still the memory of their great leader.

4. Ideas that are at universities later the minds of the nations.

5. They moved two destroyers into the area to the threat from the enemy battleship.

6. Unprecedented in demand took the manufactures by surprise.

  1. She bravely into debate.

  2. Who will now that the governor is dismissed?

  3. War produced a of patriotic enthusiasm throughout the country.

  4. He is a public figure among the country's ethnic minorities.

Exercise 52

Write a discursive composition on one of the following topics.

  1. "Will all countries eventually lose their national identities and turn into the nations of the world?"

  2. "Does globalization mean Americanization?"

Globalization affects all nations, large and small, even the most remote ones, of which the rest of the world traditionally knows little.

Read the article to answer the question about the causes of the national identity crisis in New Zealand.

Kiwi identity . Nicholas Tarling, The Essential Pocket Kiwi

Kiwi writers have started looking for identity. If you have to do that, it suggests a crisis. The Kiwis put themselves through a punishing series of changes in the 1980s, associated with "Rogernomics" (after Roger Douglas, the Minister of Finance) and the process, though slowed down, still continues. What they wrote of themselves and what others wrote of them, even as recently as 1960s, may no longer be true. Perhaps, as a result, they are more uncertain of themselves than they were. Is it still Godzone (god's own country)? Or is it chasing after false gods? They were al­ways rather uncertain and so prone both to imitate others and consider themselves superior, both to fawn and condemn.

The mind's eye of the English can capture a New Zealand that is loyal, monarchist, living by the values they themselves admire all the more for having themselves abandoned them. Thе Kiwis were more English than the English themselves, home and colonial, if one may talk shop: "The brighter Britain of the South" that Mary Sinclair extolled. Are they still? The Prime Minister has raised the question of a Republic, but few have backed him.

Egalitarianism they derive from their colonial past. You might well be glad to leave a class-conscious Britain. You might hope to find better opportunities. You might not want to see the old rigidities recreated. Some, however, did. They had not left to avoid but to emulate. The gentry of the South Island did just that. They had grown rich from land and spent their wealth in an at­tempt to recreate a foreign culture. They turned their land into power and status.

New Zealand is a small place. It is a land without heroes. It encourages compliance. Claims to egalitarianism are, of course, likely to conceal real inequality. In 1979 Dale Williams wrote of a Kiwi class system: "We are up to our terry-towelling beach hats in one". It was a question of keeping up with the Joneses and knowing which Jones to keep up with. Those who in 1980s attacked the welfare state of 1930s took full advantage of this weakness. It suited the middle class to see New Zealand as equal. They benefited most and others could hardly be thought to exist. Overthrowing the system has, however, helped those at the top. Those at the bottom it has made more numerous.

Conformity to fashionable thinking is more worrying than conformity to fashionable dressing. New Zealand in the 1980s saw a period of widespread reform. The main thought was not whether what was done was the right thing or even whether it was being done in the right way. Rather: it's your or my turn next.

Nor did the Kiwis take full advantage of their international­ism. Often the fashions in thinking, like those in dressing, come from overseas. Perhaps it is part of being modern. If others think you are still in the 19th century, you need to persuade them, or at least yourselves, that you are virtually in the 21 st.

Culture means many things to many people. It can be high, it can be pop; it can be elite, it can be mass. Sometimes it is a word of admiration or a mode of justification. It is a way of signalling difference, it is also a way of indicating what is shared. Apply one meaning to New Zealand and you will find a high culture that is "Western", reflecting the inheritance of Britain and the contact with it, but also the impact of the United States and Australia.

Western culture in New Zealand is fragmented in more than one way. As elsewhere, there is a gulf between the elite and the pop. That does not stop members of the elite savouring the pop, even taking it seriously. Nor does it stop the reverse, though more inhibitions stand in the way. In a small country like New Zealand, the sense of national pride in a singer like Kiri Te Kanawa may help to bring elite and mass together. The same may be true of other achievements that the whole country can celebrate: in rug­by, in round the world yachting. Small countries like New Zealand run the risk of being culturally submerged.

In the late 19th century the Kiwi, elite and otherwise, reacted by an assertive imperialism: they were British, but rather better British than the British themselves. Lonely and remote, they were independent, but wanted to be distinctive. And not only would they play a role on Britain's imperial stage; they could have their own empire in the South Pacific.

A different kind of nationalism sought to make New Zealand culture distinctive in a more distinctive way. That concern was felt by the intellectuals of the depression and post war years. Was there a distinctive voice in New Zealand literature or mu­sic? What was clearly distinctive was the possession of Maori culture. Whose possession was it, however? Clearly it was the possession of the Maori people. They had fought the wars with the settlers with courage and resource, but at the end of the past century when social Darwinism prevailed, they were thought to be a dying race. Certainly, their culture was undervalued. The official aim was assimilation. They survived even so. The polit­ical system gave them some opportunities and they produced some remarkable leaders. What became important for them as they moved into towns, was to take a fuller role in the profes­sions, in education and government. At the same time, Maori traditions could be reasserted or built upon as a spur to such a endeavour. It did not need imported biculturalism to send New Zealand society down this track. Where the track leads is still unclear. Maori and Pakeha live together and indeed are much intermarried. How will they preserve and develop their cultures? The Maori tradition helps to make New Zealand distinctive but borrowing it only as the trappings of an essentially monocultural society will no longer be acceptable. It will savour of tokenism and paternalism. Logos are not enough.

The Maori were in a sense honourary whites, certainly supe­rior to other coloured races. Seeking a Kiwi identity, Europeans were tempted to find it in Maoridom. There was a risk that the rituals of Maori society would become not merely a display for visiting dukes but titillation for tourists. The syllabus in Maori schools was assimilated to that in the state schools. Maori was not taught but relegated to a rural folk language. After the World Wars the relationship changed. The reform of the 1980s changed the position of the Maori, as of everyone else. In par­ticular the role of the Waitangi Tribunal was expanded, with the task of redeeming the pledges of the Treaty. Assimilation was replaced by biculturalism. Some called the country New Zealand / Aotearoa.

Notes:

  1. kiwi —a New Zealander;

  2. welfare — a system of social help provided by the state, state especially one which gives money to people who

are poor or unemployed, provides medical treat­ment etc;

3. Maori — a member of the race of people who lived in

New Zealand before Europeans arrived there, and who now form only a small part of the popula­tion. In the 19th century, the Maoris fought wars with Europeans who wanted their land, and as a result their numbers were greatly reduced and much of their old way of life was destroyed;

4. Aotearoa — the Maori name for New Zealand

Answer the questions:

  1. Are New Zealanders asking themselves questions about their identity for the first time in their history?

  2. In what way did the British immigrants define their identity when they first settled down in New Zealand?

  3. What was the attitude of other nations to New Zealanders in the 18- 19th centuries?

  4. What kinds of qualities were typical of New Zealanders in the 18-19th centuries?

  5. In what way did New Zealanders try to imitate the British?

  6. How did New Zealanders treat the indigenous population? What is social Darwinism?

  1. What role do the Maori play now (politically, socially, cul­turally)? What effect does it have on the whole nation? What is tokenism and paternalism?

  2. Should New Zealanders be afraid of biculturalism? Why? / Why not? What about European nations? What about Russia?

  3. Have New Zealanders assumed a new identity?

Exercise 53

Write a summary of the article of about 250-300 words to bring out the main arguments of the author.

Exercise 54

Render the following passage into the English language using the following words and phrases:

Longstanding highly indicative

de facto to question

to fret about to retain the identity

to imply to hamper the discussion

term martial arts

subject of public discourse to fend for

to perceive to assume the identity

diversity to raise the issue

Мы жили и продолжаем жить в мультикультурной стра­не. Однако этот термин не часто звучит в наших беседах. Чем это объяснить? Среди факторов, блокирующих поста­новку и обсуждение вопроса о России как мультикультур­ной обществе, можно выделить исторические, социо-куль-турные и политические факторы. В политическом плане это, очевидно, нежелание руководства бередить раны. Зачем шуметь о плюрализме в ситуации, когда все плюрализова-лось так, что впору говорить о развале? Не проще ли сде­лать вид, что мы живем в единой стране?

Не способствуют обсуждению и исторические обстоя­тельства, а именно многовековая традиция недемократиче­ского общества. Российская монархия, в общем, не особо беспокоясь о религиозном и культурном разнообразии под­властного ей пространства, молчаливо подразумевала, что государственность, существующая на данной территории, есть государственность русская. Если кто-то в приватной форме и позволял себе оставаться лютеранином (балтий­ские немцы), мусульманином (татары), католиком (поляки), то в публичной сфере он должен был выступать как русский. В этом смысле положение, сложившееся при большевиках, было во многом сходным.

Поздравляя соотечественников с победой во Второй ми­ровой войне, Сталин говорил о героизме не советского, а рус­ского народа. В высшей степени симптоматично, что извне советское воспринималось не иначе, как синоним русского. Европейцы и американцы боялись русских, а не советских ракет; Джеймс Бонд, используя навыки боевых искусств, обезвреживал русских, а не советских агентов; в концерт­ных залах и операх исполняли русскую, а не советскую му­зыку, совершенно не задумываясь об этническом происхож­дении Дмитрия Шостаковича или Арама Хачатуряна.

Когда капитан команды «Арарат», выигравшей в гостях У британцев товарищеский матч, прочел в газете, что «рус­ские забили в ворота «Глазго» два мяча», он пытался посто­їть за команду: «Извините, но это не русские, а армяне забили в ворота «Глазго» два мяча».

Иначе говоря, исторически сложилось так, что фактиче­ский, культурный плюрализм не получил адекватного вы­ражения в языке. Ситуация на сегодняшний день такова, что реальное многообразие не существует на дискурсив­ном уровне.

WRITING Exercise 55

Write paragraphs to comment on the following quotations.

1. Identity is what you can say you are according to what they say you can be.

Jill Johnson

2. Just as you inherit your mother's brown eyes, you inherit part of yourself.

Alice Walker

3. Don't imagine I regard foreigners as inferior — they fascinate me

Harold Wilson

Exercise 56

Write an essay on one of the following subjects.

1. I have no country to fight for: my country is the earth, and I am a citizen of the world.

Eugene V. Debs

2. The strength of a nation is derived from the integrity of its homes.

Confucius

3. A man's feet must be planted in his country, but his eyes should survey the world.

George Santayana

Workshop IV. VOCABULARY PRACTICE

Exercise 57

Complete the text bearing in mind all the studied words. The first letters of the necessary words are given to help you.

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