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34. Means of emphasis in English

There are a number of ways to add emphasis to your sentences in English. Use these forms to emphasize your statements when you are expressing your opinions, disagreeing, making strong suggestions, expressing annoyance, etc.

1) The use of Emphatic stress is a special stress that is given by the speaker to some word in a sentence, usually to single out, compare, correct or clarify things.

2) The use of HIGH pre-head. The High pre-head has a clearly emphatic function. Before a Rise it usually gives a bright , lively, encouraging character to the utterance. Ex. We had a lovely trip.

3) The use of Low Pre-Head. The LOW pre-head may occur in unemphatic and many emphatic utterances. It may be combined with any of 6 main tones. It marks the comparative unimportance of initial unstressed syllables.

4) The use of compound tones, such as Rise-Fall, Fall-Rise.

- The Fall-Rise is widely used as means of both logical emphasis and emphasis for contrast. It makes the utterance expressive enough. The speaker sounds warm, sympathetic; in special questions- weary (утомлённый).

- The Rise-Fall is highly emotional. The speaker is impressed and sometimes even rude in the case of negative emotions. Ex. The cake is spoilt!

5) The use of stepping and Sliding head. The Step. Head makes the utterance sound more persuasive. The Sliding Head due to “jumpy” form usually reflects an excited state of mind, and, sometimes, a highly emotional attitude to the situation.

6) The use of the Passive. By using a passive sentence, we emphasize by showing what happens to something rather than who or what does something.

7) Inversion. Placing a prepositional phrase or other expression (at no time, suddenly into, little, seldom, never, etc.) at the beginning of the sentence followed by inverted word order. Ex. Little did I understand what was happening. Note that the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject which is followed by the main verb.

8) Sentences introduced by 'It is' or 'It was' are often used to emphasize a specific subject or object. The introductory clause is then followed by a relative pronoun.

Ex. It was I who received the promotion. 

9) Sentences introduced by a clause beginning with 'What' are also used to emphasize a specific subject or object. The clause introduced by 'What' is employed as the subject of the sentence as is followed by the verb 'to be'. Ex: What we need is a good long shower. 

35. Stylistic use of intonation

Intonation plays a central role in stylistic differentiation of oral texts.

The uses of intonation in this function show that the information is, in many cases, impossible to separate from lexical and grammatical meanings expressed by words and constructions in a language (verbal context) and from the co-occurring situational information (non-verbal context). The meaning of intonation cannot be judged in isolation.

One of the objectives of phonostylistics is the study of intonational functional styles. An INTONATIONAL STYLE can be defined as a system of interrelated intonational means which is used in a certain social sphere and serves a definite aim in communication.

Sokolova distinguishes 5 style categories:

(1) informational (formal) style; (2) scientific (academic) style; (3) declamatory style; (4) publicistic style; (5) familiar (conversational) style.

Intonational styles distinction is based on the assumption that there are three types of information present in communication: (a) intellectual, (b) emotional, (c) volitional. Consequently, there are three types of int. patterns: (a) intonation patterns used for intellectual purposes, (b) for emotional and attitudinal purposes, (с for volitional.

All intonational styles include intellectual intonation patterns, because the aim of any kind of intercourse is to express some intellectual information. The frequency of occurrence of emotional and volitional patterns is dif. in each style.

- INFORMATIONAL predominance of intellectual int. patterns. The task set is to communicate information without giving it any emotional evaluation. Used by radio and television announcers when reading weather forecasts, news, etc. or in various official situations.

- In SCIENTIFIC intellectual and volitional patterns are used. The speaker's purpose is not only to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, etc., but also to direct the listener's attention to the message. Used by university lecturers, schoolteachers, or by scientists in formal and informal discussions;

- In DECLAMATORY the intellectual, volitional and emotional. The speaker's aim is to appeal simultaneously to the mind, the will and feelings of the listener. Used in stage speech, classroom recitation, verse-speaking or in reading aloud fiction.

- PUBLICISTIC predominance of volitional patterns. The aim is to convince him that the speaker's interpretation is the only correct. By political speech-makers, radio and television commentators, judges

- The usage of FAMILIAR is typical of the English of everyday life. It occurs both within a family group and in informal external relationships, in the speech of intimate friends or well-acquainted people.

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