Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
фонетика.doc
Скачиваний:
8
Добавлен:
09.09.2019
Размер:
181.25 Кб
Скачать

29. Widened and narrowed ranges of int. Level tone

It is generally known that voice pitch (or speech melody) and sen-ce stress are the two main components of intonation. Though these elements are very closely connected, variations in voice pitch are still most important in an intonation pattern.

Pitch level. Each int. group has its own pitch-and-stress pattern. Variations in voice pitch or melody occur within the normal range of the speaking voice, i.e. within the interval between its lower and upper limits. 3 pitch levels are distinguished: high, medium and low.

---------------

high---------

medium----

low----------

Pitch range is the interval between two pitch levels or two differently pitched syllables or parts of a syllable. The pitch range of a whole int. pattern is the interval between the highest-pitched and the lowest-pitched syllables. Pitch ranges may be normal, wide and narrow.

It becomes widened or narrowed to express emphasis or the speaker’s attitudes and emotions.

30. Speech melody

Speech melody may be defined as variations in voice pitch. It’s one of the most imp. components of intonation. Variations of pitch are produced by voice movement up and down. These tones are called moving or kinetic. They always mark the semantic centre of the sen-ce (or sense group), show the destination of the nucleus of the melodic pattern of the utterance. The other stressed words are pronounced on level or static tones.

It’s sufficient to distinguish 6 kinetic tones: 1. the low fall starts in the middle of the voice range and gradually descends to a very low pitch

2. the low rise starts at a very low pitch and gradually ascends to the middle of the voice range.

3. the high fall starts at a high pith and then falls to a very low pitch

4. the high rise starts in the middle of the voice range and then rises to a very high pitch

5. the fall-rise starts in the middle of the voice range, then falls to a very low pitch and then rises again

6. the rise-fall starts in the middle of the voice range, rises to a very high pitch and then falls to a very low pitch

31. Two basic functions of speech melody

Speech melody may be defined as variations in voice pitch. It’s one of the most imp. components of intonation. Variations of pitch are produced by voice movement up and down. These tones are called moving or kinetic. They always mark the semantic centre of the sen-ce (or sense group), show the destination of the nucleus of the melodic pattern of the utterance. The other stressed words are pronounced on level or static tones.

By means of these tones the distinctive and attitudinal functions are performed.

- The dist. function serves to distinguish communicative types of sen-ces.

The main tones may differ from each other by:

1. direction of the pitch movement (falling/rising)

2. range of the pitch movement (low/high)

3. complexity of the pitch movement (rise-fall, fall-rise)

- The attitudinal function serves to show the speaker’s emotions or attitudes to the content of the sen-ce, to the listener or to the topic of conversation.

Тут вы можете оставить комментарий к выбранному абзацу или сообщить об ошибке.

Оставленные комментарии видны всем.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]