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ОПОРНЫЙ КОНСПЕКТ 210-211.doc
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What is software?

No matter how much RAM your computer has, it won't be able to ac­complish much without software, or programmed instructions. Software comes in different forms. The most visible kind is packaged software, which you can find in brightly coloured boxes at local stores. These packages contain pro­grams; some are games and some are intended for educational or business uses.

Another kind of program that needs no work on your part is the kind that is built into your computer as ROM. Some computers have much more built-in programming than others. A dedicated computer - one designed for a particular job - may have a great of software included as part of the machine itself. For example, a word processor is really a dedicated computer. The word processing software is built into it. Be­cause of this, you can't use it for computing - only for word processing. But a word processor is ready to do its job as soon as it is turned on. It doesn't need outside software to tell it what to do.

The third kind of software is the kind you write yourself. Some people program simply for the pleasure or the challenge it provides. Others learn programming so that they can develop software geared to their own unique needs. Many computer users have never written a program of their own and probably never will. They will use the computer's built-in software, and they will run programs that someone else has written. On the other hand, many users will learn to write original pro­grams.

Application software

As you have seen, the purpose of system software is to get the computer operating. The purpose of application software is to get the computer to do a specific job. Every computer program is designed to be used, to be applied. An application in this sense, is the practical use to which a program will be put.

A computer is an all-purpose tool; it has many possible uses. A mathematician can use a specially written computer program to solve a prob­lem in minutes that once would have taken years. And there is a whole range of programs in between.

What are some of the most popular kinds of application programs for computers? Here are a few. Writing and editing

Word processing is a computer application that resembles typewriting but is far more versatile. Word processing accounts for at least of the total use of personal computers. There are more than 300 word-processing pro­grams on the market. In addition, there are programs that check spelling, others that check punctuation, and still others that teach typewriting.

Business

Application programs are available for almost anything that needs to be done. Dozens of programs make it easier than ever before to prepare budgets, keep track of inventory, and handle mailing lists. Even owners of the smallest business find computers helpful, while large businesses literally could not operate it today's world without them. Although many programs for large businesses are specially written for the company, others are the same programs that small busi­nesses and even homeowners use.

Education

The computer is a powerful teaching tool. Mathematics might seem to be its best subject, and, indeed, programs for arithmetic, algebra, and problem solving are widely used. But there are excellent programs in many other areas as well. Good software is available for reading, spelling, vocabu­lary, and grammar. Science programs cover such topics as volcanoes and dinosaurs to high-school chemistry and college optics. Programs also exist for music, map, reading and history.

*Task VI. Give the English equivalents to the following:

Потужний навчальний пристрій, доступне програмне забезпечення, виконувати певну роботу, спеціально написана для компанії, перевірити написання слова, вбудована програма, виконувати за допомогою програмного забезпечення, спеціальний комп’ютер, проводити дослідження, купувати програмний продукт, пристрій багатоцільового призначення,

***Task V. Speak about the forms of software:

  1. packaged software

  2. built into computer

  3. you write yourself

Task VI Match the information about the kinds of application programs

1) writing and editing

  1. business

3) education

    1. Programs make it easier to prepare budgets, keep track of inventory.

    2. The computer is the main teaching tool.

c) A computer application resembles typewriting but far more versatile.

**Task VII Answer the questions:

1.What is software?

2. What are the kinds of software?

3. What is the dedicated computer?

4. A word processor is the dedicated computer, isn’t it?

5. Is word processing built into computer?

6. Does it need outside processor to tell what to do?

7. What is the purpose of application software?

Task VIII. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Modal Verbs.

1. The students are to study how to write programs . 2. Scientists had to develop the first Internet systems in the 60-s. 3. The engineers will be able to widen the field of application of telecommunication systems. 4.One should note that different computer languages are designed for different purposes.5. The scientists will have to create new and more reliable instruments.

Task IX. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian to the equivalents of the Modal Verbs.

1. I have to buy a new software for my computer. 2. Without a computer scientists will not be able to solve complicated problems. 3. You should take into consideration the results of our calculation. 4. The mathematicians were to spend a lot of time doing some calculations in the past. 5. The owners of small or big businesses have to use new technologies. 6. The electronic devices will have to ensure regular production processes. 7. Every accountant is to know special computer programs to prepare budgets. 9. Are you able to work with word-processing program? 10. At present our programmers are to develop the most advanced programs to lighten peoples work.

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