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Vocabulary – 2

Study Vocabulary – 2 and then do exercise 3.

blind end tubes

ненаскрізні трубчасті органи

parasites

паразити

cell remnants / debris

залишки клітин

pathogens

хвороботворні мікроорганізми

chyle

хілус

physiological imbalance

фізіологічний дисбаланс

endothelial cells

ендотеліальні клітини

plasma protein

білок плазми

interstitial fluid

внутрішньотка­ниннна рідина

T and B lymphocytes

Т- та B-лімфоцити

interstitial space

внутрішньотка­нинний простір

triglycerides

тригліцериди

loss of blood

просочування крові

vasculature

судинна мережа

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps and translate the text.

blood capillaries

blood plasma

Blood vessels

ducts

Inner lining

lymph vessels

Pathogens

phagocytosis

transportation

Lymph

In human body the blood which flows in (1) ________ like arteries, veins and capillaries comes under physiological imbalances resulting in development of pressure on the vasculature and wall. Due to this pressure there would be some loss of blood into the surrounding area which is collected back as fluid termed as lymph.

The lymph plays a major role in protection against foreign invasion by (2) ________ like microbes, viruses and other parasites. Lymph is known to flow through vessels of large size through lymph nodes before it is put back to blood.

Connstituents of Lymph and Lympathic System

Lymph capillaries

These are found as blind end tubes in the interstitial spaces and structurally similar to (3) ________. They contain single layer of endothelial cells, which is more permeable to interstitial fluid which includes protein and cell remnants.

Lymph Vessels

These are similar to blood vessels found in circulation system of heart and contain fibrous covering, layer of smooth muscle and elastic tissue with (4) ________ of endothelium. Two lymph vessels when join together become larger and develop (5) ________ like thoracic ducts and right lymphatic duct.

Lymph Node

These are bean shaped structure like kidney but are numerous and found all along the (6) ________. They help in draining of lymph which flows through lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes help in filtering of particulate matter like microbes, dead and living bacteria.

Lymph nodes are known to help the process of (7) ________ They form the location where in lymphatic cells like T and B lymphocytes get multiply and release into the blood.

Function of Lymph

In composition lymph is similar to (8) ________ as it possesses white blood cells and is known to form in each and every organ system. It is observed that lymph coming out of lymph node is dense with lymphocytes and from digestive tract is composed of chyle made up of triglycerides.

Lymph does not contain plasma protein as found in plasma but helps in (9) ________ of plasma proteins. Lymph is known to carry the dead bacteria and cell debris formed due to tissue damage.

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