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Unit 7 the vascular system

Exercise 1. Read and translate the text.

The Vascular System (1)

The vascular system consists of:

  1. Arteries (2) that carry blood away from the heart. Arterioles (3) are small arteries that lead into the capillaries (4).

  2. Capillaries, the smallest vessels, through which exchanges take place between the blood and the tissues.

  3. Veins (5) that carry blood back to the heart. The small veins that receive blood from the capillaries and drain into the veins are venules (6).

All arteries, except the pulmonary artery, carry blood high in oxygen. They are thick-walled, elastic vessels that carry blood under high pressure. All veins, except the pulmonary vein (and the umbilical vein (7) in the fetus (8)), carry blood low in oxygen. Veins have thinner, less elastic walls and tend to give way under pressure. Like the heart, veins have one-way valves that keep blood flowing forward.

Nervous system stimulation can cause the diameter of a vessel to increase (vasodilation) (9) or decrease (vasoconstriction) (10). These changes alter blood flow to the tissues and affect blood pressure.

1.судинна система

2.артерії

3.артеріоли

4.капіляри

5.вени

6. венули

7.пупкова вена

8.ембріон

9.вазодилатація

10.вазоконстрикція

Exercise 2. Translate into English.

Вливатися; дрібна артерія; нести кров; односторонній клапан; під великим тиском; розтягуватися; тиск крові; тік крові.

Exercise 3. Fill in the gaps and translate the text.

arteries

atmosphere

blood

bright

capillaries

carbon dioxide

dark

heart

Intestine

nutrients

oxygen

Veins The Circulatory System

All animals need to transport materials around to the different parts of their body. This is the job of the circulatory system. The circulatory system consists of a liquid called (1) ________, a pump called the (2) ________ and a series of vessels called (3) ________ and (4) ________.

One thing that must be transported around is a gas called (5) ________. Oxygen enters the blood through the lungs. It is then pumped through the heart and around the body where it is used along with food to make energy. The body produces another gas called (6) ________, which is a waste product. This gas is carried back to the heart and then to the lungs where it is released back into the (7) ________.

The vessels that transport blood away from the heart are called arteries. The blood in arteries is (8) ________ red because it is rich in oxygen. The vessels that transport blood to the heart are called veins. The blood in veins is (9) ________ red because it is low in oxygen. (10) ________ are small vessels that join the arteries and veins.

(11) ________ from food are also transported around the body by the circulatory system. They enter the blood from the small (12) ________. The circulatory system also helps to regulate temperature by transporting heat around the body.