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Тема 16. Підведення підсумку

Мета: удосконалювати навички студентів правильно використовувати нову професійну лексику; розвивати логічне мислення; виховувати культуру мовлення. Навчитися будувати монологічні та діалогічні повідомлення по темі. Формувати граматичні навички вживання пасивного стану в часах групи Perfect

Обладнання: малюнки до теми, роздруківки текстів для читання та завдань, словники.

Час проведення: 2 год.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

ІІ. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Text 1 Read and translate the text pay attention to the new words


The shape of the Earth is to a large extent the result of its rotation, which causes its equatorial bulge, and the competition of geological processes such as the collision of plates and of vulcanism, resisted by the Earth's gravity field. This applies to the solid surface, the liquid surface (dynamic sea surface topography) and the Earth's atmosphere. For this reason, the study of the Earth's gravity field is called physical geodesy by some.

Geoid and reference ellipsoid

The geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth abstracted from its topographical features. It is an idealized equilibrium surface of sea water, the mean sea level surface in the absence of currents, air pressure variations etc. and continued under the continental masses. The geoid, unlike ellipsoid, is irregular and too complicated to serve as the computational surface on which to solve geometrical problems like point positioning. The geometrical separation between the geoid and the reference ellipsoid is called the geoidal undulation. It varies globally between ±110 m.

The numerous other systems which have been used by diverse countries for their maps and charts are gradually dropping out of use as more and more countries move to global, geocentric reference systems using the GRS80 reference ellipsoid.


The Passive Voice

Present perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle

The resolution

has been


The delegates

have been


Past perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle

The coat

had been


by that time

Future perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle


will have been


by next year

EXERCISE 1 Turn the following into the Passive Voice

1We turn on the light when it is dark. 2. The students finished their translation in time. 3. Helen washed the dishes. 4. Betty often took her younger brother for a walk. 5. Mother has made some coffee. 6. Have you ironed your dress yet? 7. Nina mispronounced this word. 8. They have told her the truth. 9. She promised us an interesting entertainment. 10. One uses chalk for writing on the blackboard. 11. I shall finish my work about seven o'clock. 12. Somebody has opened the door. 1.3. The waitress brought in the coffee. 14. One of my friends took me to the cinema last week. 15. We shall finish this work in time. 16. They built this house in 1960. 17. They were selling new children's books in that shop when I entered it yesterday. 18. Alarge group of young people joined us on our way to the station. 19. Ayoung teacher started a school in this village. 20. They are translating this article now. 21. Galsworthy wrote «The Forsyte Saga.» 21. Thousands of people attended this meeting. 22. He has just interrupted me. 23. The teacher has explained it to us.

Домашнє завдання. Читати, перекладати текст «Geodesy»

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