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2 Тематичний план практичних занять

з/п

Найменування розділів, тем

Кількість годин

Тема1. Фонетичні норми іноземної мови.

1

Письмове та усне мовлення.

2

2

Повна класифікація голосних і приголосних звуків.

2

Тема 2. Нормативна граматика іноземної мови.

3

Часові форми дієслова. Активний та пасивний стан дієслова.

2

4

Просте та складне речення. Головні та другорядні члени речення. Аналіз речення

2

5

Складносурядне та складнопідрядне речення.

2

Тема 3. Аудіювання та мовлення.

6

Візит іноземного партнера (зустріч в аеропорту, знайомство).

2

7

У відрядження (телефонна розмова з компанією, замовлення номеру в готелі, купівля квитка на літак).

2

8

Побут і сервіс (готельний сервіс, харчування, ресторани, закусочні, прокат автомобілів, виклик екстреної допомоги).

2

Тема 4. Читання

9

Види товарів і послуг. Транскрипція англійських голосних.

2

10

Процес виробництва. Коли англійські голосні вимовляються довго?

2

11

Коли англійськіголосні вимовляються коротко?

2

12

Транспортування товару. Як вимовляються англійські приголосні?

2

13

Види компаній у Британії. Наголос. Паузи. Мелодика.

2

Тема 5. Лексичний мінімум.

14

Категорії буття.

2

15

Географічні, демографічні, екологічні та політичні дані країни світу, мова якої вивчається та України.

2

16

Лексика професійного спрямування.

2

17

Лексика ділових контактів.

2

18

Особливості діалогу професійно орієнтованого характеру.

2

Тема 6. Мовленнєвий етикет спілкування

19

Мовні моделі привітання, прощання.

2

20

Мовні моделі вибачення, погодження.

2

21

Мовні моделі звертання, ввічливості.

2

Тема 7. Елементи усного та письмового перекладу інформації з іноземної мови.

22

Переклад. Класифікація перекладу. Різновиди усного та письмового перекладу.

2

23

Форми скорочення. Перекладацькі трансформації.

2

24

Фальшиві друзі перекладача.

2

Тема 8. Ділове листування.

25

Правила написання ділових листів. Діловий етикет.

2

26

Переписка, що стосується реалізації товару.

2

27

Претензії і їх владнання.

2

Тема 9. Професійно орієнтовані джерела

28

Професійно орієнтовані джерела з іноземної мови. Фінансові документи. Акредитив.

2

Тема 10. Електронні іншомовні джерела.

29

Робота з іншомовними джерелами наукового характеру.

2

30

Робота з іншомовними джерелами професійно – виробничого характеру.

2

31

Написання ККР.

2

32

Підведення підсумків.

2

ВСЬОГО

64

Заняття № 18

Тема: Особливості діалогу професійно орієнтованого характеру.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

1. Read and discuss the text, using the topical words

Topical words

to dial набирати номер

to ring/ to call smb up дзвонити по телефону

long distance/ international call міжнародна розмова

to call back передзвонювати

schedule розклад

May/ Can I speak to… Можна мені поговорити з …

Any message? Щось передати?

The line is busy / engaged Лінія зайнята

Don’t hang up. Hold on. Не кладіть трубку

You are wanted on the phone Вас до телефону

You have the wrong number Ви помилились номером

Can you put me through? Чи можете ви мене з’єднати?

Telephone Etiquette

Everybody has tough days. Before picking up the telephone, smile. It will help a voice sound pleasant even if not feeling pleasant. Here are some tips:

  • Be kind, polite, direct, enthusiastic, and speak with a strong voice.

  • Try to find a quiet room where there is no background noise (i.e. television, radio).

  • Do not yell at children or talk to others in the room while on the telephone.

  • Do not eat, drink, or chew gum while talking on the telephone.

  • Always have paper and pen by the telephone as well as resume, references, work history, questions.

  • Make sure the other people in household are prepared to take messages.

  • Do not let children answer the telephone.

  • Never put an employer on hold to answer call.

  • When a person in household answers the telephone, tell them not to ask who it is before they say if applicant is home.

  • If asleep when an employer calls, whoever answers the telephone should be instructed to wake the applicant immediately, especially if an employer is calling during the late morning or afternoon hours.

  • Make sure the telephone is answered by saying, "Hello", NOT "Speak" or "Yeah"

  • When answering the telephone and the caller says, "Is home?" DO NOT respond with: "Yes". This is confusing to the caller. Instead, answer by saying, "This is he/she" or "Speaking".

An answering machine/voice mail is used to take calls when an individual is out. If the individual does not have an answering machine, purchase one NOW so that calls from potential employers are not missed. If the individual has an answering machine, now is the time to update the "unusual" or "unique" greeting. Ask: "What will the future employer think of my message and how that message represents me?" Some tips:

Do:

  • Make sure message is polite, direct, and businesslike.

  • Make sure message can be understood clearly.

  • EXAMPLE: "Hello, this is (phone number). I am sorry I am not available to take your call right now. Please leave your name, telephone number, a brief message, and the best time to reach you. I will get back to you as soon as possible".

  • Return telephone calls promptly

Do Not:

  • Make crude comments or mention social references in message (i.e. I'm unable to answer my phone because I'm out partying).

  • Have music playing in the background.

  • Let children record the greeting.

  • Use multiple people when recording the greeting.

  • Preach.

When leaving a message for someone to return telephone call, try to have the correct pronunciation of their name and make sure the following is clearly stated:

  • Name

  • Telephone number

  • Message

  • The best time to call back

  • Name once again

  • Telephone number once again

  • Then hang up gently

Домашнє завдання.

Питання:

1. Are there any differences between formal and informal telephone conversations?

2. What are the main rules of a business call?

3. What business call manners do you know?

4. How do you usually make an appointment?

Завдання:

1. Підготуватись до словникового диктанту.

2. Вивчити правила ділового телефонного етикету, навчитись призначати ділову зустріч. 

Заняття № 19

Тема: Мовні моделі привітання, прощання.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення. Удосконалення граматичних навичок вживання пасивного стану в часах групи Perfect

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

There are many important areas to study when people are learning English as a second language. Teaching this language involves four aspects that we research in this work: taboos and exchanges, festivals and folklore, holidays and school schedules, and greetings and farewells.

Greetings and farewells are necessary in every language, because the “going-on-well” of a relationship, depends directly on the first contact.

English people have differents habits, with regard to this subject.

When a Spanish woman first meets ( and after says “good-bye ) an English man/woman, she goes right to his/her face and kiss twice on their cheeks. This contact, that is an everyday thing in Spain, is totally opposite to the English tradition of greeting and farewell. English people only kiss to their family. Maybe between women is a more extended habit, but not in all social levels.

Spanish people are used to maintain any little touch when conversating, thing that is unthinkable in English habitual relationships. This common touch refers to the area of haptics (any touching between humans).

Another important point in greetings and farewells is proxemics that deals with spatial concepts. There are four zones in one's personal space: public, social, personal and intimate. The inappropriate invasion of these space zones can be used to exhibit power or domination.

Returning to the Spanish example, Spanish people when conversating, are very close to their partner/s. In English relations, this is seeing as an invasion of the personal space.

All the examples shown, just demonstrate one thing: greetings and farewells in teaching English as foreign language, is one of the most important subjects.

1.2.Learning and using a non-native language.

Fishman (1971) writes that a frequent comment about American traveller abroad is that they know, at most, only one variety of the language of the country they are visiting. As result, they speak in the same way to a child, a professor, a shoe cleaner or a shopkeeper. This reveals not only their foreignness but also their ignorance of the appropriate ways of symbolising a social relationship linguistically.

What is essential to realise is that a word-view underlies all of cultural behaviour of which language is but an apart. However, it is generally the linguistic channel via which culture and its accompanying thought-word is felt to be active. An Englishman below acutely describes this feeling:

"When I speak German to Germans, I automatically shift my orientation as a social being. I spontaneously adapt myself to the atmosphere characteristic of their status, outlook, and prejudices. The very use of the customary formulae of politeness injects a distinct flavour into the conversation, colouring attitudes and behaviour. Some of these modes of expression, to be sure, are merely meaningless formulae, but by no means all. The retention of titles, in European fashion, for example, colours mutual relations, as does the free and easy American way of dropping them altogether." ( Lowie 1945, p. 257).

These observations reveal how speaking another language may involve adopting another outlook on life. It is not the second language learner per se which calls for this but the body of beliefs and practices contained in the second language culture, which are reflected and expressed in linguistic interaction.

Classroom culture: the Latin American students, for example, surprise/displease the teacher in their different attitudes towards spatial distance and body touching, because they are less distant than Anglos, as well their louder and spontaneous expression of emotion.

If any readers have tough speakers of cultures different from their own they are probably well aware of the problems, prejudices and antagonism evoked by conflicting cultural attitudes in the second language classroom, and the necessity to overcome this through cultural awareness.

Cultural and contextual ways: the paralinguistic (facial and gestual), proxemic (spatial), and language-organisational patterns which are so essential for communicating are closely orchestred with our speech. They are also carefully studied by those in communication with us in order to understand what we mean in a fuller and more accurated way, beyond the mere words we utter.

Symbolising patterns: there are actually many cases where habitual verbal patterns which are satisfactorily employed in a first language for dealing with recurrent situations will cause problems if transferred to a second language context. This is particularly so with formulae. Every speech community possesses a stock of ritual routines which may not include formulae for greeting, leave taking, thanking, apologising, congratulating, stumbling, cursing, toasting, introducing and so on. When speakers employ formulae, they draw upon the community's resources and demonstrate recognisable familiarity with and loyalty to the community's code and implicity to its values since the petrified forms relate and refer to a special, historically given social framework. Adherence to this framework is expressed and partly achieved in the employment of formulae which in turn, contributes to an affirmation of the social order which is metaphorically alluded to in the uses of the formulae (Loveday 1981).

When first language speakers do not possess formulistic competence they can be interpreted not only as lacking in politeness and sophistication but also as incompletely socialised. Formulae also define status and the situation, e.g. "hi" versus "Good morning".

To illustrate this there is a Japanese example: Japanese speakers express gratitude more intensively by means of apologies:

“...During my early days in America - when a psychiatrist who was my superior did some kindness or other - I have forgotten exactly what, but it was something quite trivial. Either way, feeling the need to say something, I produced not “Thank-you” as one might expect, but “I'm sorry”.”What are you sorry for?” he replied promptly, giving me an odd look. I was highly embarrassed. My difficulty in saying ´thank-you´ arose, I imagine, from a feeling that it implied too great an equality with someone who was in fact my superior...The reason, of course, was undoubtedly my deficiency in English at that time. But I had already begun to have an inkling the difficulty I faced involved something more than the language barrier” (Doi 1977, p.122).

What the Japanese psychologist was facing here was a different cultural interpretation of what for him was a simple linguistic symbolisation of gratitude.

1.3. Politeness in communication.

Politeness and politeness formulas: because speech events regularly include both a speaker-writer and a listener-reader, it is not surprising that language is particularly sensitive, in the rules for speech use, to the relations between the two parties. Just as good actor can utter a single sentence expressing a wide range of emotional states of the speaker, so the choice of an appropriate message form can be modified to express a wide range of attitudes of the speaker to the listener. Given the same general situation, I can pass information or make a request or simple greet in a whole set of different ways that will define my attitude to the listener and the importance I give him/her.

In its simplest terms, politeness consists of this recognition of the listener and his or her rights in the situation. Requests, which are an imposition on the listener, are mitigated by being made indirectly, as questions (Could you possibly pass me the salt?) or as statements (´I think that is the salt beside your plate), or by adding formulas like ´Please´and ´if you would be so kind´. Social relations are eased by complimenting (´I do like your new car!´or ´Congratulations´).In some laguages,there are elaborated sets of politeness formulas,like in Arabic saying mabruk to someone who has just bought something new,or na? iman to someone who has just had a haircut or a bath or a short nap. For each formula, there is an appropriate reply, ´allah ybarik fik´ (may God bless you) to the first and ´allah yn?am?alek´ (may God refresh you) to the second.In American-English, the equivalent is saying ´You´re welcome´in reply to ´Thank-you´.

The most common kind of politeness formulas are involved with greetings. Greetings are the basic oil of social relations. To fail to greet someone who expects to be greeted, signals either some unusual distraction or a desire to insult the person. Each social group has its own set of rules about who should be greeted, who should greet first and what is an appropriate form of greeting.

English greetings range from an informal ´Hi!' through a neutral ´Good morning´ to a slowly disappearing formal ´How do you do!'. It is common to add a second part of the greeting, a purely phatic ´How are you!´ to which no reply is expected. Arab greetings use an elaborated set of paired greetings-plus-responses, depending on time of day or other social aspects of the situation.

The study of greetings, therefore, provides a first useful method of exploring the structure of a social group. A second area showing patterned variation in speech and similarly studied within the ethnography of communication has been the conditions on the use of terms of address.

Terms of address: a related phenomenon in languages that do not have the Tu (in French)/Vous (also in French) distinction is the use of address terms. English once had the thou/you distinction and still offers a range of address terms, ranging from Title Alone (Sir, Your Majesty, Madam, Constable) through Title + Last Name (Mr. Jones, Dr. Smith, Lord Clark, Miss Jones, Mrs. Jones, perhaps, Ms. Jones) to First Name to Multiple Names (including Nicknames). The conditions for choosing vary socially. Increasingly, in North America and British academic circles, people who have just been introduced as ´Professor X, meet Dr.Y´move inmediately to first names. There are still interesting cases of uneven usage. American doctors and dentists use first names to all their patients, but expect Dr. X in return. Teachers in many societies receive Title or Title + Last Name, but return first name (or in some schools, last name).

1.4. Communication skills.

Communication skills: body language is one of the most important conversational skills. Research indicates that 70% of communication is non-verbal. Body language can communicate our feelings and attitudes. Examples of receptive body language: open posture, eye contact and friendly smile. Examples of non-receptive body language: closed posture, little eye contact and no-smile. Non-receptive body language often leads to short non-sustancial conversations. First impressions need to be positive and friendly.

Pleasant smile is strong indication of a friendly and open attitude and willingness to communicate. It is appositive, non-verbal signal sent with the hope that the other person will smile back. When you smile, you demonstrate that you have noticed the person in appositive manner. The other person considers it acompliment and will usually feel good. The result? The other person will usually smile back. Smiling does not mean that you have to put on a phony face or pretend that you are happy all of the time. But when you see someone you know, or would like to make contact with, do smile. By smiling you are demonstrating an open attitude to conversation.

You might not realise that closed posture is the cause of many conversational problems. Typical closed posture is sitting with your arms and legs crossed and your hand covering your mouth or chin. This is often called “thinking pose”, but just ask yourself this question: Are you going to interrupt someone who appears to be deep in thought? Not only does this posture give off “stay away” signals to others, but also prevents your main “signal sender” (your mouth) from being seen by others looking for receptive conversational signals. Without these receptive signals, another person will most likely avoid you and look for someone who appears to be more available for contact.

To overcome this habitual way of standing or sitting, start by keeping your hands away from your mouth, and keep your arms uncrossed. Crossed arms tend to indicate a defensive frame of mind, and thus one not particularly favourable to outside contact. They can also indicate impatience, displeasure, or judgement - any of which would discourage people from opening up.

Open posture is most effective when you place yourself within communicating distance of the other person - that is, within about five feet. Take care, however not to violate someone's “personal space” by getting too close, too soon.

Leaning forward slightly while a person is talking to you indicates interest on your part, and shows you are listening to what the person is saying. This is usually taken as a compliment by the other person, and will encourage him to continue talking.

Often people will lean back with their hands over their mouth, chin or behind their head in the “thinking” poses. This posture gives off signals of judgement, scepticism, and boredom from the listener. Since most people do not feel comfortable when they think they are being judged, this leaning back posture tends to inhibit the speaker from continuing.

It is far better to lean forward slightly in a casual and natural way. By doing this, you are saying: ´I hear what you're saying and I'm interested - keep talking!' This usually let's the other person feel that what he is saying is interesting, and encourages him to continue speaking.

In many cultures the most acceptable form of first contact between two people who are just meeting is a warm Hancock. This is true when meeting members of the same or opposite sex - and not just in business, but in social situations, too. In nearly every situation, a warm and firm handshake is a safe and positive way of showing an open and friendly attitude toward the people you meet.

1.5. Non-verbal miscommunication.

Sara's supervisor approaches her about the financial analysis that she is preparing for Tuesday's meeting. He walks towards her, leans on the edge of her desk, and looks down to question her. His position, high above Sara, looking down, causes Sara to become uneasy and fidgety. She ruffles her papers and updates her boss on the progress of the analysis, exhaling a sigh of relief when he leaves her desk. Sara's supervisor has caused an anxious response by invading her personal space, and made her intimidated by her boss' body language. Non-verbal communication, commonly referred to as body language, gives clues to our innermost thoughts and desires, our non-verbal communication can send strong signals about our desire for dominance or power, but if misread by another can send an incorrect and inappropriate signal.

Body language is not simply how our hand move or where we lean. The field of non-verbal communication covers all aspects of our bodies. Therefore, before we begin a study of powerplays through non-verbal communication, let me examine some basics concepts of body language. Physical appearance refers to one's “image, attractiveness, race, height, weight, body shape, hairstyle, dress and artefacts”(Masterson p.1).

Appearance plays role because we all make certain assumptions based on one's physical appearance; firm eyes, a general look of stability, still hands, big fingers, large nostrils, and one overriding facial feature contribute to the “look of power”(Korda p.16). Kinesics, a word derived from the Greek word for movement, encompasses any movement except those that involve touch. Kinesics, which is further broken down into categories such as diactics, metamorphics, emblematics, and other similarly cryptic and confusing subgroups, all refer to the way our body “speaks” to others via its movements. In specific reference to the facial area is occulesics, which many non-verbal scholars exalt as the most significant form of non-verbal communication. The movement of eyes, crinkling of the nose, and raising of the eyebrow all fall under occulesics. Most important to our exploration of dominance and power are the areas of haptics and proxemics. Haptics refers to any touching between humans. Whether it is between two lovers or a chiropractor and his patient, haptics tells us about the touch's purpose as an indicator of the participants' relationship. As we shall soon see, touch can be used in an unequal power relationship to intimidate or motivate. Finally, proxemics refers to the area of personal space that exists between humans. The example at the start of this writing describes Sara's response to personal space invasion; personal space invasion is one of the most intimidating forms of non-verbal communication when inappropriate.

Researcher E.T. Hall created the term proxemics in 1.963, which is the area of non-verbal communication study that deals with spatial concepts; he categorises one's personal space into four zones: public, social, personal and intimate. The inappropriate invasion of these space zones can be used to exhibit power or domination. The four zones of personal space can be likened to four doors. The first door is unlocked and open to everyone (public space). This space is used for public speaking and separates people by 12 feet or more. The second door, accessible only after you “penetrate” the first, is social distance. Acquaintances and those without a large degree of intimacy are allowed into the social distance zone, which extends from 4 to 12 feet. Door #3 is the personal space zone, which converse within each other's personal space zone. The fourth and final zone is the intimidate space zone, which ranges from 6 to 18 inches. This zone, strictly reserved for those who have a high degree of intimacy, is used for “embracing and whispering” (Scrolls p.2).

These zones, if invaded by an unwanted person, will cause uncomfort and anxiety in the person whose space is being incurred. Business executives are actually trained to invade other's space, causing others to become anxious, establishing their superiority and dominance. One example is the “overrunning technique” that executives use at meetings and lunches. The purpose is to make a frontal assault, therefore intimidating and overpowering. The powerplayer will gradually and slowly, throughout the course of the meeting, encroach upon another's personal space. The executive may remove her wallet from her purse, her lipstick, and then a mirror or changepurse, gradually placing them on the other side of the table where another is sitting. A male executive might pull the same maneuver by placing a lighter, cigarettes, his wallet, and other trinkets on the opposite side of the table. A wargame is almost played out on the table: the point is to take over their space and dominate. One person attempts to occupy as much of the other's space as possible. Outside of the business world, personal space invasion is just as intimidating. Walking down the street, and unknown stranger who passes too closely (i.e. in social, personal, or intimate space) we make the passer-by very cautious. A man “moving in” on his romantic target too quickly sounds alarm in the object of his eye. His use of aggressive proxemic and haptic behaviour is easily read by the one he seeks, and causes uncomfort because he appears too forward and dominating.

In social interactions, the person with more power sends signals with there eyes to show dominance; our eyes in particular control interpersonal interactions. Our eyes sending slight yet easily decipherable signals that are the most common form of "social control" (Webbink p.36). Webbink later says that eye behaviour "reveals the balance of power: persons of greater power stare at others more, look less than they listen, and command a larger visual `space´, while persons with less power avert their gaze when stared at, look more attentively as they listen, and assume less visual space." Those wishing to assume a greater power role can adopt the eye behaviour of powerful people. Making little eye contact while listening, as if the speaker must beg for your attention, and staring at someone (thereby showing that you are not afraid to look at them) proves to enhance someone's role as a powerful figure. Those adopting these techniques, however, need to be mindful to not appear hostile. Those already in a power role, such as teacher's presence in the classroom (Hodge p.264 as quoted in Webbink p.45). In assertiveness training programme for teachers showcased the use of forceful eye contact, using the child's first name, and placing a hand on the student's shoulder. The combination of dominant eye contact, an encroaching on the student's personal space makes the student know that the teacher is serious.

The Passive Voice

Present perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle

The resolution

has been

prepared

The delegates

have been

elected

Past perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle

The coat

had been

sold

by that time

Future perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle

He

will have been

examined

by next year

EXERCISE 1 Turn the following into the Passive Voice

1We turn on the light when it is dark. 2. The students finished their translation in time. 3. Helen washed the dishes. 4. Betty often took her younger brother for a walk. 5. Mother has made some coffee. 6. Have you ironed your dress yet? 7. Nina mispronounced this word. 8. They have told her the truth. 9. She promised us an interesting entertainment. 10. One uses chalk for writing on the blackboard. 11. I shall finish my work about seven o'clock. 12. Somebody has opened the door. 1.3. The waitress brought in the coffee. 14. One of my friends took me to the cinema last week. 15. We shall finish this work in time. 16. They built this house in 1960. 17. They were selling new children's books in that shop when I entered it yesterday. 18. Alarge group of young people joined us on our way to the station. 19. Ayoung teacher started a school in this village. 20. They are translating this article now. 21. Galsworthy wrote «The Forsyte Saga.» 21. Thousands of people attended this meeting. 22. He has just interrupted me. 23. The teacher has explained it to us.

Домашнє завдання. Переказувати текст

Заняття № 20

Тема: Мовні моделі вибачення, погодження.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення. Удосконалення граматичних навичок вживання пасивного стану в часах групи Perfect

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

AngelList “corporate policy” is that team members should ask forgiveness, not permission.

We would rather have someone do something wrong than ask permission to do it.

Or better, we would rather have someone do something right and not need permission to do it. This is the most common outcome.

We would rather have people ship to production whenever they want, than go through an internal review process. We can fix it on production. We prefer the customer’s review process. And it isn’t too hard to reveal a new feature to a small portion of our users and iterate on it as we expand it to more users.

Eliminating permission increases speed and diversity

Eliminating permission increases the speed and diversity of our decision-making. Our incubator applications are a good example of diverse decision-making: one of our team members built it even though I was telling him, “This is fine, but I don’t think it is that important. Why don’t you work on something else.” It ended up being very important to our users and mission.

There are some sensitive parts of our product that are walled off from this “ask forgiveness” policy. There are some things we want reviewed by the people who “know better”. But it’s really rare.

How it works

This policy only works if you hire insanely smart and capable people, and let go of the ones who are not. We also filter for people who are mission-oriented, care about our customer and want to learn more.

And it doesn’t mean that the founders aren’t standing over your desk telling you, “this isn’t good enough to ship”. That’s why we write down and promote these ideas. Because there is always pressure from someone important to do it another way.

It also wouldn’t work without these other items of corporate propaganda:

You break it, you bought it

If you break something or your stuff is buggy, please fix it. As in straight away mate.

Sweat the details and corner cases

If people are going to ship whatever they want, we need them to sweat the details if they’re going to avoid mistakes.

The best way to do that is to have the rest of the team constantly complain that your code and/or design sucks or, in polite terms, “contains opportunities for improvement.”

Actually, mistakes are fine. They’re something you trade off for other variables like speed of iteration. We just want people to sweat the details because we care about the details.

Be real

Again, if people are going to ship whatever they want, whenever they want, how do we get them to make good decisions? One answer is that we ask them to “be real”. As in, treat our users like real people. Treat your teammates like real people. Just be real and do the right thing.

Do what you think is right (and be right)

If you have the freedom to make decisions, you also have the responsibility of being correct.

S/he who codes, rules

Another way we promote good decisions is by pushing the decisions down to the people doing the work. We memorialize that with the motto, “s/he who codes, rules”. As in, when we disagree, the person doing the work makes the decision.

Own the result

Pushing the decision-making down to the worker works best if the same person is responsible for the metrics. So we try to have 1-wo/man teams whenever we can, and we ask them to own the result. We also hire people who care about our customer and want to solve problems for them.

Freedom and Responsibility

All of these dictums are variations on freedom and responsibility. Netflix has a great presentation on the topic. So does Valve. Peter Drucker probably wrote about it 50 years ago. We didn’t invent this stuff, we don’t claim to know what we’re doing, nor is this a perfectly accurate or complete model of how we operate.

Freedom

Ask forgiveness, not permission

Do what you think is right (and be right)

S/he who codes, rules

Responsibility

You break it, you bought it

Sweat the details and corner cases

Be real

Own the result

EXERCISE 1 Turn the following into the Passive Voice

1. We received this letter after his departure. 2. Have dogs ever attacked you? 3. Bees gather honey from flowers. 4. The storm drove the ship against a rock. 5. Who discovered the circulation of blood? 6. They are selling delicious fruit ice cream there now. 7. The old man showed us the way out of the wood. 8. They offered her some interesting work. 9. The doctor prescribed her new medicine. 10. They often speak about him. 11. Everybody laughed at this funny animal. 12. We have been looking for you the whole morning. 13. We shall insist on strict discipline. 14. They teach three foreign languages at this school.

EXERCISE 2 Turn the following into the Active Voice

1. The light has not yet been turned off. 2. The boy was punished for misbehaving. 3. By three o'clock everything had been prepared. 4. The dictation was written without mistakes. 5. Whom was the poem written by? 6. Her dress was washed and ironed. 7. I was not blamed for the mistakes. 8. The papers had been looked through and corrected by the next lesson. 9. This house was built last year. 10. The letter has just been sent. 11. This article will be translated at the lesson on Tuesday. 12. When will this book be returned to the library? 13. The room was cleaned and aired. 14. Have all these books been read? 15. Whom were these letters written by? 16. The letter has just been typed. 17. She showed me the picture which had been painted by her husband. 18. I shall not be allowed to go there. 19. He has been told everything, so he knows what to do now. 20. All the questions must be answered. 21. The door has been left open. 22. Betty was met at the station. 23. The girl was not allowed to go to the concert.

24. She said that the new time-table had not yet been hung up on the notice-board. 25. The chicken was eaten with appetite. 26. It was so dark, that the houses could not be seen.

Домашнє завдання : переказувати текст

Заняття № 21

Тема: Мовні моделі звертання, ввічливості.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Politeness theory is the theory that accounts for the redressing of the affronts to face posed by face-threatening acts to addressees.[1] First formulated in 1978 by Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson, politeness theory has since expanded academia’s perception of politeness.[2] Politeness is the expression of the speakers’ intention to mitigate face threats carried by certain face threatening acts toward another (Mills, 2003, p. 6). Another definition is "a battery of social skills whose goal is to ensure everyone feels affirmed in a social interaction".[1] Being polite therefore consists of attempting to save face for another. [This definition reflects a limited conception of (im)politeness. Indeed, it may reflect a hegemonic construction. Face is not endemic to all human cultures when displaying politeness or impoliteness.

Face is the public self image that every adult tries to protect. In their 1978 book chapter, Brown and Levinson defined positive face two ways: as "the want of every member that his wants be desirable to at least some others executors" (Brown & Levinson, 1978, p. 62), or alternately, "the positive consistent self-image or 'personality' (crucially including the desire that this self-image be appreciated and approved of) claimed by interactants" (Brown & Levinson, 1978, p. 61). Negative face was defined as "the want of every 'competent adult member' that his actions be unimpeded by others", or "the basic claim to territories, personal preserves, rights to non-distraction--i.e. the freedom of action and freedom from imposition".[3] Ten years later, Brown characterized positive face by desires to be liked, admired, ratified, and related to positively, noting that one would threaten positive face by ignoring someone. At the same time, she characterized negative face by the desire not to be imposed upon, noting that negative face could be impinged upon by imposing on someone.[4] Positive Face refers to one's self-esteem, while negative face refers to one's freedom to act.[1] The two aspects of face are the basic wants in any social interaction, and so during any social interaction, cooperation is needed amongst the participants to maintain each other's faces

Домашнє завдання : переказувати текст

Заняття № 22

Тема: Переклад. Класифікація перекладу. Різновиди усного та письмового перекладу.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Читання тексту (пошукове)

Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. Whereas interpreting undoubtedly antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature; there exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (ca. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE.

Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated.

Due to the demands of business documentation consequent to the Industrial Revolution that began in the mid-18th century, some translation specialties have become formalized, with dedicated schools and professional associations.

Because of the laboriousness of translation, since the 1940s engineers have sought to automate translation (machine translation) or to mechanically aid the human translator (computer-assisted translation). The rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated language localization.

Translation studies systematically study the theory and practice of translation

Читати та перекладати текст.

Road transport

Goods which need careful handling, such as fruit, are often sent by road, as they only need to be loaded and unloaded once. Normally they are sent as general cargo. The carrier responsible for transporting goods by road is the haulage company.

Advantages and disadvantages of road transport

It is very fast over short distances.

The extensive road network means that most destinations can be reached.

It is relatively secure — even valuable items such as cash reserves can be transported by specialist companies

Door-to-door transportation minimises the need for handling — goods only have to be loaded and unloaded once

Only small quantities can be transported.

There is a relatively high risk of accidents and delays through traffic jams.

It is expensive and time-consuming over longer distances; intercontinental transportation is virtually impossible.

Another advantage of sending goods by road (although it is also possible with other means of transport) is the opportunity of using a grouped consignment service. If a trader only has a small quantity of cargo to send, he can collaborate with other sellers with small consignments all going to the same destination. The various part consignments are then sent together as one whole consignment, which reduces the transport costs for everybody involved. One of the people who organises grouped consignments is the forwarding agent. He is the intermediary between the buyer, seller and carriers. Other servics which he provides are delivering goods from the seller to the carrier, transporting goods with his own lorries, arranging special packaging and providing storage space for goods which are to be dispatched at a later date.

The transport documents essential to road transport are the international consignment note (CMR) if a haulage company is used, and the Forwarding Agent's Certificate of Receipt (FCR) for transportation by a forwarding agent.

Домашнє завдання : розповідати теоретичні відомості про види перекладу.

Заняття № 23

Тема: Форми скорочення. Перекладацькі трансформації.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

Теорія.

TRANSLATION TRANSCRIPTION

Transcription is a method of writing down speech sounds.

It is essential to differentiate between a phonetic transcription and a practical (or translation) transcription. In a phonetic transcription, sounds are depicted by special symbols on the basis of their articulatory and auditory identity. A phonetic transcription is an intralinguistic operation, that is, it deals with only one language: Anchorage [`xNkqrIG], Oakland [`qVklxnd].

A practical transcription is an interlinguistic operation as it deals with two languages: the sounds of the source language word are rendered by the letters of the target languge: Anchorage – Анкоридж, Oakland - Окленд. Because the English (Latin) and Russian (Cyrillic) alphabets and sounds do not coincide, there are special rules48 for representing English sounds by Russian letters and Russian sounds by English letters.

The most important rules are as follows:

Transcribing English sounds with Russian letters:

Interdental [ D] correspond to the Russian Т: Thatcher – Тэтчер, Thackeray – Теккерей. Sometimes these sounds correspond to the Russian C, which is a bit outdated: Galsworthy – Голсуорси. In Greek words, the interdental sound is rendered by the Russian Ф: Athens – Афины, Themistocles – Фемистокл.

The English [w] is transmitted by the letter У if followed by a vowel: William – Уильям, Wilder – Уайлдер. But when followed by the vowel [u], the consonant [w] is rendered by the letter В: Woolf – Вулф, Wodehouse – Вудхаус. However, there are some traditional cases of the sound [w] represented by the letter В: Washington – Вашингтон, Walter Scott – Вальтер Скотт. The same is true in reference to the borrowed (mostly German) names: Wagner – Вагнер, Wilhelm – Вильгельм.

The English [h] can be represented in two ways: either by Х: Hailey – Хейли, or by Г: Hamilton – Гамильтон. Thus some words acquire two forms in Russian: Hoffman – Хофман, Гофман.

[N] is transliterated by НГ: Jennings – Дженнингс.

The vowel [з:] after the consonant corresponds to the Russian Ё: Burns – Бёрнс. In the beginning of the word, this sound is represented by the letter Э: Earl’s Court – Эрлз-Корт.

[æ] is represented in Russian by Э/Е/А: Batman – Бэтмен, Jack – Джек, Glasgow – Глазго.

Russian sounds in English transcription are usually represented as follows:

[j], represented in writing by the letter Й, corresponds to the English Y/I in the end of the word: Толстой – Tolstoy, Троцкий – Trotsky/ Trotski; to I in the beginning of the word: Йошкар-Ола – Ioshkar-Ola. If [j] makes part and parcel of a vowel letter (Е, Ё, Ю, Я) it is represented by Y or I: Енисей – Yenisei, Порфирьевич – Porfirievich, Югославия – Yugoslavia, Ялта – Yalta.

The Russian [ж] is rendered by ZH: Житомир – Zhitomir.

[х] corresponds to KH or, rarely, H: Находка – Nakhodka.

[ц] is represented by TS: Целиноград – Tselinograd. Care should be taken, however, with foreign words: they usually have their native form: Цюрих – Zurich, Цейлон – Ceylon, Цзянси – Jiangxi.

[ч] may correspond either to CH or to TCH: Чехов – Chekhov, Чайковский – Tchaikovsky.

[щ] is represented by the cluster SHCH or SCH: Щелково – Shchelkovo.

[ы] usually corresponds to Y: Куйбышев – Kuibyshev.

One should pay special attention to transcribing East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) words into English and Russian, especially when doing tertiary translation of Asian words from English into Russian or vice versa.

It is neccessary to remember that because of the difference in phonetic systems, East Asian sounds are designated differently in English and Russian. Thus, in Japanese words, the sound symbolized by the English sh is somewhere between [s] and [S]; therefore, in Russian it is transcribed by the letter C: e.g., Hiroshima – Хиросима, shogun – сёгун. The letter L can indicate the sound quality between [l] and [r]. For example, the name of the Korean president Kim Il Sung corresponds in Russian to Ким Ир Сен.

GRAMMAR TRANSFORMATIONS

Grammar transformations are morphological or syntactical changes in translated units. They are subdivided into the following types:

Grammar substitution, when a grammar category of the translated unit is changed. Thus a passive construction can be translated by an active voice verb form: Martin Heidegger is generally regarded as one of the most influential founders of existentialism. – Мартина Хайдеггера обычно считают одним из самых значительных основоположников экзистенциализма. The reason for this transformation is stylistic: in English the passive voice is used much more often in neutral speech, whereas in Russian this category is more typical of the formal style.

Or there may be substitution of the noun number category, the singular by the plural or vice versa: Her hair is fair and wavy. – У нее светлые волнистые волосы. This transformation is due to the structural difference between the English and Russian languages: in English the analyzed noun is Singularia Tantum, in Russian it is used in the plural.

Parts of speech, along with the parts of the sentence, can be changed: He is a poor swimmer. – Он плохо плавает, where the noun is substituted by the verb, the adjective by the adverb; simultaneously the predicative is substituted by the simple verb predicate. The reason for this transformation can be accounted for by language usage preferences: English tends to the nominal expression of the state, Russian can denote the general state by means of the verb.

2. Word order change. Usually the reason for this transformation is that English and Russian sentences have different information structures, or functional sentence perspective.* For example, A new press conference was held in Washington yesterday is naturally equivalent to Вчера в Вашингтоне состоялась новая пресс-конференция, where the adverbial modifiers, subject and predicate are positioned in a mirrorlike fashion.

3. Sentence partitioning is the replacement of a simple sentence in the source text with a complex sentence (with some clauses), or a complex sentence with several independent sentences in the target text for structural, semantic or stylistic reasons: I want you to undestand this transformation. – Я хочу, чтобы вы поняли эту трансформацию. Моя машина не завелась, поэтому я не смогла заехать за вами. – My car wouldn’t start. Therefore, I couldn’t pick you up.

4. Sentence integration is a contrary transformation. It takes place when we make one sentence out of two or more, or convert a complex sentence into a simple one: If one knows languages, one can come out on top. – Зная языки, можно далеко пойти. In ancient Rome, garlic was believed to make people courageous. Roman soldiers, therefore, ate large quantities of it before a battle. – Перед боем римские воины съедали большое количество чеснока, поскольку в Древнем Риме полагали, что чеснок делает людей мужественными.

5. Grammar compensation is a deliberate change of the grammar category by some other grammar means. Compensation takes place when a grammar category or form does not exist in the target laguage and, therefore, cannot produce the same impact upon the target text receptor.

LEXICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

Lexical transformations change the semantic core of a translated word. They can be classified into the following groups:

1.Lexical substitution, or putting one word in place of another. It often results from the different semantic structures of the source language and target language words. Thus the word молодой is not always translated as young; rather, it depends on its word combinability: молодой картофель is equal to new potatoes. This translation equivalent is predetermined by the word combination it is used in. This type of translation can hardly be called substitution, since it is a regular equivalent for this phrase.

Deliberate substitution as a translation technique can be of several subtypes:

Specification, or substituting words with a wider meaning with words of a narrower meaning: Will you do the room? – Ты уберешься в комнате? I’ll get the papers on the way home. – Я куплю газеты по дороге домой. The underlined English words have larger scopes of meaning than their Russian counterparts and their particular semantics is recognized from the context.

Generalization, or substituting words of a narrower meaning with those of a wider meaning: People don’t like to be stared at. – Людям не нравится, когда на них смотрят. If we compare the semantic structure of the English and Russian verbs, we can see that the English stare specifies the action of seeing expressed by the Russian verb. The Russian смотреть can imply staring, facing, eyeing, etc. The specific meaning in the Russian sentence can be expressed by the adverb пристально. Another reason for generalization in translating can be that the particular meaning expressed by the source language word might be irrelevant for the translation receptor: She bought the Oolong tea on her way home. – По дороге домой она купила китайского чаю. Oolong is a sort of Chinese tea but for the receptor this information is not important; therefore, the translator can generalize.

Differentiation is a rather rare technique of substitution. It takes place when we substitute a word by another one with parallel meaning, denoting a similar species: bamboo curtain – железный занавес. Both bamboo and железо (iron) are materials known for their hard nature. They are used figuratively to denote the barriers between the Western and Communist countries (bamboo curtain in reference to China, железный занавес in reference to other Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Aid) states. There are no hyponymic relations between the notions of bamboo and iron (though the referential area of железный занавес is of course much wider than that of bamboo curtain.)

Modulation is a logical development of the notion expressed by the word: But outside it was raining. -– Но на улице шел дождь. The primary equivalent of the word outside is снаружи. But it is impossible to say in Russian *Но снаружи шел дождь. By means of unsophisticated logical operation the translator finds another equivalent: на улице. Thus he takes into consideration a tradition of the word combination and acceptability of collocation. He is aided in this by the metonymical closeness of word meanings based on contiguity of the two notions.

pensation is a deliberate introduction of some additional element in the target text to make up for the loss of a similar element in the source text. The main reason for this transformation is a vocabulary lacuna in the target language. For example, one of the Galsworthy’s characters was called a leopardess. But there is no one-word equivalent of the same stylistic coloring in Russian. Therefore, the translator compensated the word by using the word тигрица to characterize the lady.

3. Metaphoric transformations are based on transferring the meaning due to the similarity of notions. The target language can re-metaphorize a word or a phrase by using the same image (Don’t dirty your hands with that money! – Не марай рук этими деньгами!) or a different one (Он вернет нам деньги, когда рак свистнет. – He will pay us our money back when hell freezes over). The source language metaphor can be destroyed if there is no similar idiom in the target language: Весна уже на пороге. – Spring is coming very soon. Or, on the contrary, the target text is metaphorized either to compensate a stylistically marked word or phrase whose coloring was lost for some reason, or merely to express a source language lacuna: Он решил начать жить по-новому. – He decided to turn over a new life.

COMPLEX TRANSFORMATIONS

This type of transformations concerns both the lexical (semantic) and grammatical level, i.e. it touches upon structure and meaning. The following techniques can be associated with lexical and grammatical transformations:

1. Explicatory translation, that is, rewording the meaning into another structure so that the receptor will have a better understanding of the phrase. Sometimes this transformation is named as explicitation, defined as the technique of making explicit in the target text information that is imlicit in the source text.51 This transformation is often accompanied by the extension of the structure, the addition of new elements: I have a nine-to-five job. –Я работаю с 9 утра до 5 вечера. Leslie Mill’s play, which was also included in the FORUM, was taken up with children from grades 1-5. – Пьеса Лесли Милла, которая также была опубликована в журнале «Форум», была поставлена детьми 1-5 классов. The reason for which this transformation is made is that the target text receptor has different background knowledge. Sometimes this transformation is required because of the dissimilarity between the language structures, with the source language structure being incomplete for the target language, like gun licence is удостоверение на право ношения оружия.

2. Reduction (omission, implicitation) is giving up redundant and communicatively irrelevant words: Elvis Presley denied being lewd and obscene. – Элвис Пресли отрицал свою непристойность. The reduction is a must if a source language expresses the notion by a phrase and the target language compresses the idea in one word: сторонники охраны окружающей среды – conservationists. There is a general tendency of the English language to laconic and compressed expressions as compared with Russian: внебюджетные источники финансирования – nonbudget sources; контроль за ходом проекта – the Project control.

3. Integral transformation is the replacement of a set phrase with another clichéd structure that has the same speech function: How do you do! – Здравствуйте!; Wet paint. – Осторожно, окрашено. Help yourself. – Угощайтесь.

4. Antonymic translation is describing the situation by the target language from the contrary angle.

It can be done through antonyms: the inferiority of friendly troops – превосходство сил противника. The reason for this transformation is the lack of a one-word translation equivalent to the word inferiority.

This transformation can also take place when we change the negation modality of the sentence: She is not unworthy of your attention. – Она вполне достойна вашего внимания. In the English sentence we deal with double negation, called understatement, which, according to logic rules, means the positive expressed in the Russian sentence. Through understatement, English-speaking people avoid expressing their ideas in too a categoric tone.

Shifting the negation is another manifestation of the antonymous translation: I don’t think I can do it. – Думаю, я не смогу сделать это., which is a result of linguistic tradition peculiar to this or that language.

5. Metonymical translation is the transferance of meaning and structure based on the contiguity of forms and meanings of the source and target languages: The last twenty years has seen many advances in our linguistic knowledge. – В последние 20 лет наблюдается значительный прогресс в лингвистике. In the English sentence, time is expressed by the subject of the sentence, whereas in Russian it is more typical to express it by the adverbial modifier. This causes grammar restructuring of the sentence.

6. Complex compensation is a deliberate change of the word or structure by another one because the exact equivalent of the target language word or phrase is unable to produce the same impact upon the receptor as does the source language word or phrase. For example, we often have to compensate on the lexical level the meaning of the Past Perfect in the Russian text translation, since there is no similar tense category in Russian: Their food, clothing and wages were less bad than they had been. – Теперь их еда, одежда и зарплата были не такими уж плохими, как когда-то. Puns, riddles, tongue-twisters are often compensated; for example, Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you. – Во дворе трава на траве дрова. Compensation exercises the translator’s ingenuity; however, the effort it requires should not be wasted on textually unimportant features.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Читання тексту (пошукове)

Railway transport

If goods are transported by train, the carrier is the railway company. The price of railway transport depends on how fast the goods are to travel: the slow goods train is cheaper than the passenger train, and the express train is the fastest and most expensive of all.

Advantages and disadvantages of railway transport

Virtually all types of cargo can The railways may

be transported. be affected by

strikes Virtually any distance can be

covered. There is a relati-

Large quantities can be transported.

The transport document needed for railway transport is the rail consignment note.

Air transport

Air transport is chosen when the goods are valuable, fragile or urgently needed. The carrier is the airline.

Advantages and disadvantages:

Air transport is fast. It is relatively expensive.

It is a secure form of transport, which means that insu­rance costs are low.

There is no limita­tion as to distance.

It is subject to delays and strikes.

It is not practical for short distances.

It may be necessary to send the goods some distance to reach

the cargo terminal of an airport.

The transport document necessary when goods are dispatched by air is the air waybill.

Questions for revision

Which form or forms of transport would you choose for the following consignments, and why? What kind of cargo is involved in each case?

  1. A large consignment of cars from Hamburg to Dresden.

  2. A small consignment of flour from Wales to London.

  3. A small consignment of china from London to Moscow.

  4. An urgently needed consignment of tea from Bombay to Boston.

  5. A cargo of timber (wood) from Germany to England via Rotterdam.

  6. A consignment of diamonds from Cape Town to Cairo.

  7. A large consignment of coal from Sheffield to Leeds (both in the north of England).

  8. A cargo of bananas from the Caribbean to Dublin.

  9. A large consignment of lorries from London to Warsaw.

10. A small consignment of cheese from Switzerland to the USA

Домашнє завдання : розповідати теорію

Заняття № 24

Тема: Фальшиві друзі перекладача.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми, страхуванню товару; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення, формувати граматичні навички узгодження часів.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Words which are similar in form but different in meaning are called translator’s false friends.

"фальшивий друг" фальшивий переклад правильний переклад переклад фальшивої асоціації

activities активність діяльність activity

advocate адвокат прибічник, захисник attorney

actual актуальний фактичний topical

accurate охайний влучний neat, tidy

artist артист художник actor

aspirant аспірант претендент postgraduate

appellation апеляція назва appeal

partisan партизан захисник guerrilla

audience аудієнція глядачі hearing

focus фокус (трюк) увага trick

camera камера фотоапарат cell

colon колона двокрапка colomn

complexion комплекція колір обличчя physique

corpse корпус труп corps [ko:]

compositor композитор укладач в типографії composer

clay клей глина glue

criminal кримінал злочинець crime

stool стілець табурет tuffet

fable фабула байка plot

substantive субстантивний основний substantival

data дата дані date

decoration декорація знак відмінності, прикраса scenery

decade декада десятиріччя ten-day period

dynamic динамічний гнучкий, дієвий fast-moving

national administration нац. адміністрація нац. уряд authority

progress report доклад про прогрес доклад про хід работи -

subject суб’єкт питання, предмет person

fraction фракція дроб (матем.) faction

familiar фаміл’ярний відомий, знайомий hod-a-nob

bullion бульйон злиток beef-tea

balloon балон повітряна куля bottle, bulb

baton батон жезл, дубинка loaf

billet білет плашка; посада ticket, seat

mayor майор мер major

magazine магазин журнал store, shop

motorist моторист автолюбитель machinist, manipulator

motion моціон рух constitutional, walk

intelligence інтелігенція розум clerisy

depot депо склад house, station

Dutch датський голландський Danish

direction дирекція напрямок management, front offic

fabric фабрика тканина factory, works

concern концерн задача, інтерес trust,combine,

genial геніальний гостинний genius

obligation облігація зобов’язаність bond

principal принциповий основний principled

prospect проспект перспектива avenue

production продукція виробництво end-product

physician фізик врач-терапевт physicist

physique фізик будова тіла physicist

probe проба зонд test, trial, attempt

list лист список sheet, piece of paper

lunatic лунатик божевільний somnambulant

rapport рапорт добрі відносини

receipt рецепт квитанція recipe ['resipi

replica репліка точна копія cue

troops трупи війська corpses

extra екстра додатковий super

Введення граматичної теми

Sequence of Tenses

Exercise 1

Change the following into indirect speech,

1. "I have something to tell you," I said to her. 2, "I met her for the first time on a warm sunny morning last spring," he said. 3. "I am going to call again tomorrow, mother," she said. 4. "I've been to Turkey twice, but so far I haven't had time to visit Istanbul," said Robert. 5. "It will be very difficult to persuade her to take care of herself, doctor," I replied. 6. "The president is to come to Madrid the day after tomorrow," said the BBC announcer. 7. "We have a lift but very often it doesn't work," they said. 8. "We have bought a new flat. But we don't like it so much as our last one," said my cousin. 9, "I have left a message for him, but he hasn't phoned yet," she said. 10, "I've no idea who has done it but I'll find out," said Peggy. 11. He said, "My mother has just been operated on," 12. 'I'll come with you as soon as Fin ready," she replied to me. 13. i have a French lesson this evening and I haven't done my homework yet," said the small boy. 14. "She has been sitting* in the garden since the police came," I said to the officer. 15. "You haven’t closed the window and has forgotten to turn off the light," he pointed out,

Exercise 2

Change the following general questions into indirect speech. Begin your sentences with the words I/he wondered, we/they asked, she/he wanted to know, etc.

Example: Did she go shopping? — І asked if/ whether she had gone shopping,

1. Are your children still skiing? 2. Have they had breakfast yet? 3. Is Mike still taking an exam? 4. Did she take part in the performance? 5. Had they already left by the time you went to the station? 6. Do they regularly go to the swimming pool? 7. Will she buy a new Hoover? 8. Will she be training at 10 tomorrow? 9. Does he usually go to the Caribbeans for his holiday? 10. Did she learn to play the guitar? 11. Has the decision been already taken? 12. Do you know when the results will be out? 13. Does he know your new address? 14, Have you known each other for a long time? 15. Did he begin smoking a pipe?

Домашнє завдання : вивчити фальшиві друзі перекладача.

Заняття № 25

Тема: Правила написання ділових листів. Діловий етикет.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми, принципи страхування; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення, формувати граматичні навички узгодження часів.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Structure of the Letter

1. Sender's address / Date.                             

2. Inside address (receiver's address).

3. Attention line.                                            

4. Salutation.

5. Body of the letter.                                     

6. Complimentary close.

7. Signature.

3. Analyze the following letter according to its structural points.

1

GIMBEL& CO Ltd

21 High Street, Blackheath,

London SE3B 5HY

Tel: 01-564-8843

7th May 2002

The address of the firm sending the letter (the letterhead) is often printed on the paper

 

The date

2

M.Lawson Esq, Manager,

Filbury & Johns,

20 Shaftsbury Avenue,

London W1A 4WW

The name, position, firm and address of the addressee

 

3

Ourref: DM/SK

Dear Mr Lawson,

The reference (the initials of the person writing the letter and the person who types it)

4

Thank you for your letter of 4th May enquiring about our range of office equipment.

The first paragraph says why you are writing

 

5

I enclose an up-to-date price list and our latest catalogue which I hope includes something of interest to you. You will notice that we offer very favourable terms of payment.

The second paragraph says what you want or what you are doing (the real reason for writing the letter)

 

6

I look forward to hearing from you again.

The final paragraph is a polite ending

7

Yours sincerely

You write 'Yours sincerely", if you know the name of the addressee and 'Yours faithfully" if you don't

8

David Eipley

Sales Manager

The signature

The person writing the letter

His position in the firm

9

Encs

Here the enclosures are the catalogue and price list

 

4. Use the given phrases in the business letter of your own.

Opening Phrases:

•   Dear Madam - Шановна пані

•   Dear Sir - Шановний добродію

•   Dear Mister Malforn - Шановний пане Малфорн

•   Dear Sirs - Шановні панове

•   We have received your letter of...  - Ми отримали Вашого листа від ...

•   We thank you for your letter of... - Дякуємо за лист від ...

•   We have the pleasure to inform you - Ми раді повідомити Вас

•   In reply to your letter of… - У відповідь на ваш лист від...

•   To inform you… - Повідомляємо вас…

•   We apologize for the delay - Просимо пробачення за затримку з

in answering your letter.   відповіддю на ваш лист.

Linking Phrases:

•   There is no doubt that… - Безперечно…

•   It is necessary to note… - Необхідно відзначити, що…

•   We'd like to draw your attention to the fact... - Звертаємо вашу увагу на той факт...

•   Considering the above said… - Беручи до уваги сказане…

•   In this connection… - У цьому зв 'язку…

•   In connection with your request… - У зв'язку з вашим проханням…

•   Otherwise we shall have… - У противному разі ми будемо

змушені…

•   As regards your request… - Щодо вашого прохання…

•   Up till now we have received no reply. - Дотепер ми не отримали відповіді.

•    In case of delay… - У випадку затримки…

•    In case of your refusal… - У випадку вашої відмови…

•    In case you fail to make payments… - У випадку несплати…

Closing Phrases:

•   We are looking forward to receiving your          - Чекаємо вашої згоди/схвалення/

consent/approval/confirmation.                                   підтвердження.

•  Your prompt execution of our order would       - Будемо вам вдячні за швидке

be appreciated.                                                           виконання нашого замовлення.

.•  We wish to maintain cooperation with you.         - Сподіваємося підтримувати

співробітництво.

•  Your early reply will be appreciated.                   - Будемо вам вдячні за швидку

відповідь.

•  We are looking forward to hearing from you.      - Сподіваємося отримати від Вас

відповідь найближчим часом.

•   If we can be of any assistance, please do not    - Просимо звертатися до нас, якщо ви

hesitate to contact us.                                                   потребуєте допомоги.

•  Yours faithfully/ sincerely                                     - З повагою

5. Read and discuss the structure of the following letter according to the given statements and rules. 

D. Clark,

Sales Manager,

Priston & Co Ltd,

28 Kolas Court,

North Middletown, NJ

07734 USA

                                                                                      5th March 2001    

Our ref: MP/NK

 

Dear Mr. Clark,

Thank you for your offer of 3rd March.

We are favourably impressed by the quality of your commodity, but feel that the price is rather high. The prices quoted by other suppliers are, on the average, 10% lower. However, in view of the high quality of your commodity, we are ready to make a deal with you if you re-examine your prices. If you reduce your price by 5% we will place an order for some 10.000 items. We trust that in view of the size of the order you will see your way of making this concession.

Your early reply will be appreciated.

Yours sincerely,

 

Mike Parson

Sales Manager

Домашнє завдання:

6. Answer the questions.

1. Who is sending the letter?

2. Who is receiving it?

3. What is the opening phrase?

4. The company is ready to purchase the commodity, isn't it?

5. What is its requirement?

6. What quantity is it ready to buy?

7. Do you think it is worth to make this concession?

8. What is the closing phrase?

Домашнє завдання :

Translate into English.

1. Ми отримали вашого листа від 13 вересня 2002. 2. Дякуємо за лист-зoбов’язання від 1 березня. 3. Я надсилаю вам цей лист з проханням надіслати каталог вашої продукції. 4. Ми готові співпрацювати з вами. 5. Ми хочемо закупити таку продукцію. 6. Компанія має виключне право на виготовлення цих товарів.

Заняття № 26

Тема: Переписка, що стосується реалізації товару.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина. Пошукове читання тексту

The chain of distribution

Normally the manufacturer sells his products to the wholesaler, the wholesaler sells to the retailer, and the retailer sells to the consumer or end-user. However, depending on the type of product, one or more stages may be missed out

How do you think the following goods are distributed? There may be more than one answer!

Off-the-peg clothes

Designer clothes

Hand-made chocolates

Flowers

Stationery

Services

Other people do not contribute directly to production, but are needed for example to transport the goods from the manufacturer to the customer, to insure the goods etc. These people render services. There are several types of service:

1. Public services:

People in public services are employed by the government, for example civil servants and teachers.

2. Private services

Private services are rendered by skilled people with their own organisations, for example lawyers and doctors in private practices.

3. Consumer services:

Consumer services are services used by people in their everyday life, e.g. electricians and hairdressers.

4. Commercial services:

Commercial services are rendered by people who are needed for the efficient distribution of goods, for example exporters, bankers, agents.

Exercise 4. What kind of service do I render?

I'm a teacher.

I'm a plumber.

I work for a shipping company.

I'm a customs officer.

I work in a warehouse.

I'm an insurance broker.

I'm a mechanic.

I own a wholesale company which sells clothing.

I'm a judge.

I'm an architect.

Questions for revision

1. Choose one or more of the following products and describe (in as much detail as possible) the process it undergoes from the time the natural resources are extracted to the time it reaches the consumer:

Bread

Paper

Leather shoes

Wooden chairs

Copper pipes

Mention the three stages of industry and the chain of distribution.

2. Which type of service do you think is the most important? If possible, rank them in descending order of importance (most important to least important) and explain why

Домашнє завдання. Переказувати текст «The chain of distribution»

Заняття № 27

Тема: Претензії і їх владнання.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Complaints and adjustments

If the seller causes a breach of contract, or if there is else something wrong with the execution of the order, the buyer can make a complaint. Here are some of the things a buyer can complain about:

  • The goods are of inferior quality.

  • The goods are damaged. -

  • The goods were lost in transit.

  • The price is incorrect.

  • There was a delay in delivery.

  • The goods were shortshipped (the weight was too low or the quantity too small).

  • The wrong goods were delivered.

  • The goods do not match the sample.

If the complaint is justified, the seller has to make an adjustment, i.e. he has to offer the buyer some form of compensation. There are four possibilities:

  1. The seller invites the buyer to RETURN the goods at the seller's expense.

  2. The seller REPLACES the faulty goods at his own expense.

3. In some cases, the goods can be REPAIRED by the seller or at the seller's expense.

4. The buyer keeps the goods, but the seller offers him a price REDUCTION.

If the seller is late in delivering the goods, the buyer can send one or more reminders and tell the seller that he will withdraw from the contract if the goods are not delivered by a certain date, the final deadline. It can be that the buyer reserved the right to cancel the order if delivery was late. In this case, he can cancel his order without sending any reminders.

It can happen that the buyer suffers a loss if the goods are delivered late — he may lose business, for example. In this case, he can claim damages from the seller; that means, he can start legal proceedings for compensation. However, if the delay is caused by factors beyond the seller's control, for example floods, earthquakes, war etc., the seller is not liable for any of the buyer's losses.

Exercise 1. What kind of adjustment would you expect in each case?

  1. You ordered two chests of best quality Ceylon tea. However, when it arrives, you find that the quality is inferior to that of the sample.

  2. You ordered 50 ladies' dresses in size 40. However, the dresses delivered are size 42. Nevertheless, the quality is good and you think these dresses will sell just as well.

  3. You ordered 20 porcelain dinner services. However, when they arrive you find that due to careless packing, quite a lot of the pieces are broken.

  4. You ordered 40 pairs of handmade leather shoes. When they arrive, you see that the stitching on one of the shoes is broken.

  5. You ordered б washing machines, to be delivered within 14 days. However, б weeks later they still haven't arrived.

Reminders

If the buyer fails to fulfil his obligation of paying on time, it is customary to send three reminders:

Payment becomes overdue

Seller sends first reminder. This may be a hidden or covert reminder; that means it may be included in an offer or sales letter to the buyer

Buyer requests deferment of payment or makes a part-payment If the buyer doesn't answer, the seller sends a third reminder with a final deadline for payment and states his intention to take legal action if payment isn't made by this date

If there is still no reply, the seller takes legal action against the buyer

Домашнє завдання.

Questions for revision

  1. What is the difference between a general and a specific enquiry? Describe using examples.

  2. What is the difference between a solicited and an unsolicited offer? Describe using examples.

  3. What is an offer without engagement and when is it used? In the case of an offer without engagement, how is the sales contract concluded?

  4. What is a firm offer and when is it used? In the case of a firm offer, how is the sales contract concluded?

  5. What is the difference between a trial order and an initial order?

  6. What is the difference between a repeat order and a follow-up order?

  7. What is the difference between a standing order and merchandise on call?

  8. What do you understand by breach of contract? Give some examples.

  9. Describe the reasons a buyer may have to make a complaint. What kind of compensation would you, as the buyer, offer in each case?

10. What can you, as the seller, do if the buyer fails to fulfil his liability of paying on time?

Заняття № 28

Тема: Професійно орієнтовані джерела з іноземної мови. Фінансові документи. Акредитив.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення, формувати граматичні навички узгодження часів.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

І. Читання тексту

Professionally oriented foreign language teaching as a fundamental factor in the formation of a competitive specialist.

The rapid entry of Kazakhstan into the world community, integration processes in politics, economy, culture, ideology, mixing and movement of peoples and languages ​​raise the issue of intercultural dialogue, mutual understanding of participants of communication.

Under present conditions, the role of information at all levels and in all areas of social development is raising. For specialists the knowledge of only their native language is no longer enough , they should be aware of what is going on in their professional field in the world. A foreign language is a prerequisite for their professionalism, allowing to work with the information available to the world community, as well as to communicate with colleagues in the profession in different countries. The actual integration of Kazakhstan in the Bologna process and participation in the European labor market is possible when the future professionals receive sufficient training in foreign languages, including the language faculties.

However, we must note the discrepancy between the level of foreign language training specialists with higher education and the requirements of the time. The problem from the category of private has outgrown long ago into the nationwide rank. Until recently, the language barrier was an insurmountable obstacle for many Kazakh specialists, which prevented them from getting the information from the original foreign sources, deprived them of the possibility of self-assessment of scientific ideas put forward by foreign scientists.

Obviously, the content and technology of the learning process in a foreign language (FL) should reflect the goals and objectives of the specialist training in correspondence with the future professional activity. When implementing a professionally-oriented training of a foreign language as traditional didactic and methodological principles must be considered alongside with the relatively new: education and development of internationally-oriented personality; humanistic development of learning tools in the context of a foreign language in the dialogue of cultures ; as well as the principles of problem-oriented, interdisciplinary interdependence and complementarity .

The modern system of education, relying on traditional sources of information and knowledge management process, requires an expansion of the information field. With the Internet a fundamentally new situation in the education system has been created: the ability to use scientific databases and information centers around the world, the information, which is located on the sites of the various institutions. The term "information culture" is increasingly found in defining the objectives and content of education. In general, information culture is characterized as the basis of human culture. The main factor in the widespread concept under consideration is the process of informatization and computerization of society as a whole, and the education system. Modern means of communication with partners, access to information resources on the Internet suggest fluency not only in computer technology, but DICE.

ІІ. Читання тексту

All the three existing types of markets — money markets, share (stock) markets and commodity markets — function in close connection with the banking sphere.

Nowadays one can speak of a global banking system although banks, of course, continue to play their local, more traditional role: opening and managing accounts, giving loans, and fulfilling all kinds of other operation to assist agriculture, industry and commerce.

Traditional instruments of international bank payments are letters of credit (discussed in Chapter XV) and documentary collection bills.

Documentary collection bills are presented to the importer's bank or its correspondent by the exporters together with all the shipping, insurance and other documents specified in the contract. If the documents are in order the importers instruct their bank to pay and then collect the shipping documents.

The process of payment from bank to bank has been greatly quickened by the introduction of SWIFT system (Society for Worldwide International Financial Telecommunication). This network nowadays covers thousands of banks in about a hundred countries. A message to pay money sent through the computers of SWIFT system can be received in the matter of seconds.

The role of correspondent banks is nowadays also permanently growing. A correspondent bank is the one which carries the deposit balance of another bank situated in another city of country. This exchange of services between banks greatly facilitates international payments.

Some of the basic terminology connected with banking includes interest rates (percentages that a bank earns by giving out loans), deposits (i.e. money placed in a bank), remittances (i.e. transfer of money), etc.

Interest rates and bank rates, naturally, differ from country to country, from bank to bank, and from client to client, but one of the most influential indices here is LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate).

Another development in banking is the industry of plastic (credit) cards. By issuing credit cards to individual clients and thus encouraging them to spend money, the banks tap the almost inexhaustible resources of the consumer sector. This system was pioneered by the USA where plastic cards have proved a goldmine for banks, but now credit cards are issued by virtually all big banks around the world.

NOTES

  1. money market

  2. share (stock) market

  3. commodity market

  1. opening and managing accounts

  2. collection bill to collect v collection n collection order

  3. SWIFT (Society for Worldwide International Financial Telecommunication)

  1. correspondent bank

  2. interest rate

  3. remittance n

  4. bank rate

Прямая соединительная линия 13Letter of credit

A letter of credit is a promise made by the buyer's bank (the opening or issuing bank) to send a certain sum of money to the seller's bank (the advising bank), to be credited to the seller, known as the beneficiary, provided he fulfils his part of the sales contract. It is also known as a documentary credit.

Types of letter of credit

  1. A revocable letter of credit can be cancelled or changed without the seller's agreement. As this doesn't offer the seller much control over payment, this type of letter of credit is rarely used.

  2. An irrevocable letter of credit can be cancelled or changed, but only with the agreement of all parties. All letters of credit are irrevocable unless expressly stated otherwise.

A confirmed letter of credit is always irrevocable. If the seller feels that the risk of not receiving payment is still too high, for example because the buyer's country's economy is unstable, he can arrange for a bank in his own country to confirm the letter of credit (this bank is then known as the confirming bank; it can be the same bank as the advising bank). This means that the seller will receive his money from the confirming bank, regardless of whether or not his invoice is paid in the buyer's country.

Формування граматичних навичок

The Passive Voice

Present perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle

The resolution

has been

prepared

The delegates

have been

elected

Past perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle

The coat

had been

sold

by that time

Future perfect

passive subject

'to be'

past participle

He

will have been

examined

by next year

EXERCISE 1 Turn the following into the Passive Voice

1We turn on the light when it is dark. 2. The students finished their translation in time. 3. Helen washed the dishes. 4. Betty often took her younger brother for a walk. 5. Mother has made some coffee. 6. Have you ironed your dress yet? 7. Nina mispronounced this word. 8. They have told her the truth. 9. She promised us an interesting entertainment. 10. One uses chalk for writing on the blackboard. 11. I shall finish my work about seven o'clock. 12. Somebody has opened the door. 1.3. The waitress brought in the coffee. 14. One of my friends took me to the cinema last week. 15. We shall finish this work in time. 16. They built this house in 1960. 17. They were selling new children's books in that shop when I entered it yesterday. 18. Alarge group of young people joined us on our way to the station. 19. Ayoung teacher started a school in this village. 20. They are translating this article now. 21. Galsworthy wrote «The Forsyte Saga.» 21. Thousands of people attended this meeting. 22. He has just interrupted me. 23. The teacher has explained it to us.

Домашнєзавдання. Переказувати текст «Прямая соединительная линия 12Letter of credit»

Заняття № 29

Тема: Робота з іншомовними джерелами наукового характеру.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення. Навчити студентів реферувати тексти, писати анотації до них.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

Теорія.

Scientific information should be based on reliable published sources and should accurately reflect the current state of knowledge. Ideal sources for these articles include comprehensive reviews in independent, reliable published sources, such as reputable scientific journals, statements and reports from reputable expert bodies, widely recognized standard textbooks written by experts in a field, or standard handbooks and reference guides, and high-quality non-specialist publications. Although news reports are inappropriate as reliable sources for the technical aspects of scientific results or theories, they may be useful when discussing non-technical context or impact of science topics, particularly controversial ones.

The scope of this page is limited to natural sciences, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, geoscience, physics, and interdisciplinary fields. For articles about medicine, see Wikipedia:Reliable sources (medicine-related articles). This page does not address reliability in context of social sciences; biographical detail; social or political impact or controversy; or related non-scientific issues – even when these are presented in the context of a natural science article.

See Wikipedia:Reliable sources/Noticeboard for queries about the reliability of specific sources for a given purpose, or ask relevant Wikiprojects such as WikiProject Science, WikiProject Physics, WikiProject Chemistry, WikiProject Biology, or any of the science-focused Wikiprojects.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Читання тексту

Shares

The stock exchange itself isn't open to ordinary investors; instead, they have to buy shares via a stockbroker. Many banks and financial institutions offer this service in return for a commission.

There are a number of different types of share:

Ordinary shares These are the most common shares, also known as equities. The ordinary shareholders bear the largest part of the risk, but the returns can be much higher than with other forms of investment. Ordinary shareholders are entitled to one vote per share, which gives them more say in the running of the company; but the amount of dividend they receive (if any) is determined by the company depending on how much profit has been made.

Preference These shares have a fixed dividend

shares which must be paid before

the ordinary shareholders can receive their dividend, which gua rantees a return on investment as long as the company is making a profit. However, if the company doesn't make a profit, the preference shareholder will not be paid his dividend either. Unlike the ordinary shareholder, the preference shareholder is not entitled to vote in company matters.

Cumulative This is a special class of preference

preference share which offers a safer

shares return on investment. This is be-

cause if the company cannot pay the dividend one year, the outstanding amount is carried over

How to Write a Summary in 8 Easy Steps

Writing a good summary demonstrates that you clearly understand a text...and that you can communicate that understanding to your readers. A summary can be tricky to write at first because it’s tempting to include too much or too little information. But by following our easy 8-step method, you will be able to summarize texts quickly and successfully for any class or subject.

1) Divide…and conquer. First off, skim the text you are going to summarize and divide it into sections. Focus on any headings and subheadings. Also look at any bold-faced terms and make sure you understand them before you read.

2) Read. Now that you’ve prepared, go ahead and read the selection. Read straight through. At this point, you don’t need to stop to look up anything that gives you trouble—just get a feel for the author’s tone, style, and main idea.

3) Reread. Rereading should be active reading. Underline topic sentences and key facts. Label areas that you want to refer to as you write your summary. Also label areas that should be avoided because the details—though they may be interesting—are too specific. Identify areas that you do not understand and try to clarify those points.

4) One sentence at a time. You should now have a firm grasp on the text you will be summarizing. In steps 1–3, you divided the piece into sections and located the author’s main ideas and points. Now write down the main idea of each section in one well-developed sentence. Make sure that what you include in your sentences are key points, not minor details.

5) Write a thesis statement. This is the key to any well-written summary. Review the sentences you wrote in step 4. From them, you should be able to create a thesis statement that clearly communicates what the entire text was trying to achieve. If you find that you are not able to do this step, then you should go back and make sure your sentences actually addressed key points.

6) Ready to write. At this point, your first draft is virtually done. You can use the thesis statement as the introductory sentence of your summary, and your other sentences can make up the body. Make sure that they are in order. Add some transition words (then, however, also, moreover) that help with the overall structure and flow of the summary. And once you are actually putting pen to paper (or fingers to keys!), remember these tips:

Write in the present tense.

Make sure to include the author and title of the work.

Be concise: a summary should not be equal in length to the original text.

If you must use the words of the author, cite them.

Don't put your own opinions, ideas, or interpretations into the summary. The purpose of writing a summary is to accurately represent what the author wanted to say, not to provide a critique.

7) Check for accuracy. Reread your summary and make certain that you have accurately represented the author’s ideas and key points. Make sure that you have correctly cited anything directly quoted from the text. Also check to make sure that your text does not contain your own commentary on the piece.

8) Revise. Once you are certain that your summary is accurate, you should (as with any piece of writing) revise it for style, grammar, and punctuation. If you have time, give your summary to someone else to read. This person should be able to understand the main text based on your summary alone. If he or she does not, you may have focused too much on one area of the piece and not enough on the author’s main idea.

Домашнє завдання: Робота з іншомовними джерелами наукового характеру.

Заняття № 30

Тема: Робота з іншомовними джерелами професійно – виробничого характеру.

Мета: навчити студентів правильно користуватися лексикою до теми; розвивати навички монологічного та діалогічного мовлення, навички послідовного перекладу; виховувати культуру мовлення. Навчити студентів реферувати тексти, писати анотації до них.

Обладнання: роздруківки завдань до теми, підручник.

Час проведення: 2 години.

План заняття

І Організаційний момент. Привітання

II. Перевірка домашнього завдання.

ІІІ. Основна частина.

Введення нового лексичного матеріалу

  • to extinguish hazardous fires

  • to threaten property

  • a fire training organization

  • the National Fire Protection Association

  • a local or state approved fire academy

  • technical rescue

  • Firefighter Fellowship

  • United Firefighters

  • Firefighter Brotherhood

  • a grassroots campaign

  • to bring together firefighters

  • to bring the Brotherhood together

  • camaraderie, support and unity

  • a grassroots effort

  • to help promote and unite firefighters

  • to be registered as a union.

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