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Короткі відповіді ТОАМ НОВІ 2012.docx
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20. Головні варіанти вимови англійської мови (Major accents of English)

British phonologists P. Trudgill, J. Hannah, A. Hughes divide all variants of English into two major groups. They are: English-based group and American-based group.

1) the English-based group comprises English-English, Welsh English, Scottish English, Northern Ireland English, Australian English, New Zealand English.

2) the American-based group covers American English and Canadian English.

English English includes two major accents: Southern English and Northern English.

Thus, there are five major accents on the British Isles. They are:

1. Southern English or Received Pronunciation (RP)/BBC English.

2. Northern English.

3. Welsh English.

4. Scottish English.

5. Northern Ireland English.

RP/BBC English implicitly enjoys the status of the national standard of pronunciation in the United Kingdom.

In American English, three main types of literary/cultivated pronunciation are distinguished:

1. General American (GenAm, GA)/Network English which is also known as Western American. 2. Eastern American.

3. Southern American.

GenAm/Network English enjoys the status of the national standard of pronunciation in the USA.

New varieties of English or New Englishes have emerged as the result of the colonial experience: Indian English, Hong Kong English, Singaporean English, West African English, etc.

21. Класифікація голосних в англійській мові за артикуляцією (The articulatory classification of the English vowels).

The system of the English vowels was investigated by well-known British, Russian and Ukrainian phoneticians such as: Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, V. A Vassilyev, Shcherba and others.

The articulatory classification of the English vowels can be described according to the following criteria: 1. Stability of articulation; 2. Tongue position; 3. Lip position; 4. Character of the vowel end; 5. Length; 6. Tenseness.

  1. According to the stability of articulation we distinguish: monophthongs (12- i:, u:, a:, ↄ:, 3:, I, e, æ, ↄ, Λ, υ, ə); diphthongs (8 - Iə, ə, υə, eI, αI, ↄI, əυ, αυ) and thriphthongs (5 - eIə, αIə, ↄIə, əυə, αυə).

  2. According to the length of articulation we distinguish: long vowels (i:, u:, a:, ↄ:, 3:) and short vowels (I, e, æ, ↄ, Λ, υ, ə).

  3. According to the degree of muscular tension we distinguish: tense vowels (i:, u:, a:, ↄ:, 3: ) and lax vowels (I, e, æ, ↄ, Λ, υ, ə).

  4. According to the lip participation we distinguish: rounded (labialized) vowels (u:, υ, a:, ↄ: ) and unrounded (non-labialized) vowels (I, e, æ, Λ, υ, ə, i:, a:, 3: ).

  5. According to the vertical movement of the tongue we distinguish: high, mid and low vowels of narrow or broad variety (i:, u: - high/narrow variety, I, υ - high/broad variety; e, 3: - mid/narrow variety, ə, Λ - mid/broad variety; ↄ - low/narrow variety, æ, ↄ: a: - low/broad variety.

  6. According to the horizontal movement of the tongue we distinguish: fully front – i:, e; front retracted – I, æ; central - 3:, ə, Λ; back advanced – υ; fully back vowels – u:, ↄ, ↄ:, a:

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