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Unit 1. Animal husbandry

I. Reading and Speaking Practice Section

1. Guess the meaning of the following international words:

Bacon, farm, balance, minerals, vitamins, infection, lactation, litre, standard.

2. Match the English names of animals with their Russian equivalents:

a pig корова

a cow кролик

a rabbit овца

a sheep коза

a hog лошадь

a cock петух

a horse вол

an ox боров

a goat свинья

a hen цыпленок

a chicken курица

3. Discuss in small groups the following points (see Appendix 1 on p. 69):

- the animals your family cares for;

- the animals farmers breed in your region.

Text A

Domestic Animals

Read the text to find out how all domestic animals are classified, give the examples of each class; complete the diagram.

All animals are divided into the three main classes: omnivorous, carnivorous and herbivorous.

Omnivorous animals are pigs, bears, rats and others; they utilize both plant and animal food. The pig is an omnivorous animal with a simple stomach. Hogs produce bacon and pork.

Carnivorous or flesh-eating animals, such as cats, dogs and sharks live on the bodies of other animals.

Herbivorous animals are: cattle, deer, horses, sheep and rabbits, they live chiefly on plants. The cow, the ox, the sheep and the goat belong to the ruminants. They can digest a large quantity of coarse fibrous material due to their compound stomachs. The cow can consume and digest large quantities of roughage and convert it into milk and meat for human food. To produce a large supply of rich milk, cows must be of good milking qualities and well-fed. Farmers should feed high-producing cows hey and grain to keep animals in good health.

They must water, feed and care for farm animals every day of the year.

Water is an essential need for livestock. Water makes up over 50 per cent of the composition of the animal body.

To be in a healthy state an animal must eat the right quantity of food made up of the correct balance of carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins.

Healthy livestock on the farm means more highly nutritious products on the tables of any home.


Practice 1. Summarize the text by listing:

- the three main classes of domestic animals;

- measures that should be taken to keep farm animals healthy every day.

Practice 2. Re-read the text to find out which of its paragraphs deals with:

- the principles of the classification of domestic animals;

- the products people can get from domestic animals;

- nutrients that animals need for life and growth;

- the importance of water for livestock feed.

Practice 3. Re-read the text again to find out which of the following statements are true and which are false.

1. Omnivorous animals can digest animal food.

2. Carnivorous animals utilize plants only.

3. Hogs can digest a large quantity of coarse fibrous material.

4. The cow can not digest large quantities of roughage.

5. If the cow is of good milking qualities, it does not need to be well-fed to supply rich milk.

6. Livestock does not need water.

7. Farmers must feed and water their livestock every day.

Practice 4. The answers to the following questions are the summary of the text. Answer these questions and give the summary of the text.

1. What domestic animals can you name?

2. What classification of domestic animals can you find in the text?

3. Do all domestic animals have the same digestive apparatus?

4. What is important in livestock management?

5. What elements does animal food consist of?

Practiсe 5. Does this text give you sufficient information about animal husbandry? What questions would you ask the author of the text?

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