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Linux+ Certification Bible.pdf
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Chapter 1 Study Guide

3.Your company is short of funds but needs a reliable file server set up. You have managed to get a server but not an operating system license. Which OS can you use to set up the server?

Answers to Chapter Questions

Chapter Pre-Test

1.Linux is a UNIX-like operating system.

2.GNU stands for GNU’s not UNIX and is attempting to create a UNIX-like OS.

3.GPL stands for General Public License, which was established with GNU to guarantee that it would remain free.

4.Open Source allows anyone to make changes and redistribute software, whereas Closed Source restricts those rights to the copyright holder.

5.Freeware is software that carries no fees, but Shareware requests or requires a fee.

6.Linus Torvalds started the Linux project while a student at the University of Helsinki.

7.To provide an UNIX-like OS.

8.Linux doesn’t use a UNIX kernel and is Open Source.

9.The POSIX standard allows POSIX software to run on any POSIX OS.

10.Linux is an Open Source UNIX-like OS that provides the stability and functionality for both the individual desktop, and Enterprise server environments.

Assessment Questions

1.C. UNIX inspired the Linux OS because Linus Torvalds wanted to use UNIX tools but didn’t want to buy a UNIX license. Minix is a UNIX-like tool created by Professor Andrew Tannebaum, GNU is an ongoing project to create a UNIXlike OS, and POSIX is an IEEE standard for UNIX. For review, see the “Who started Linux?” section.

2.B. Linus Torvalds created the first Linux kernel and released it to the general public in 1991. Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie helped to create UNIX, and Andrew Tannebaum created Minix. For review, see the “Who started Linux?” section.

3.C. Linux was originally created to run on the Intel x86 platform. Sparc and Alpha are not PC platforms and although the PowerPC is a PC platform, it isn’t the PC that Linus Torvalds used. For review, see the “Who started Linux?” section.

Chapter 1 Study Guide


4.A. AT&T Bell Laboratories, General Electric, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology worked together on the MULTICS project to create a Multiplexed Computing System. BSD was and is a licensee of UNIX code, Open Source is an initiative for free software, and the GNU project is attempting to create a UNIX-like OS. For review, see “The origin of UNIX” section.

5.B. The Linux kernel is distributed under the GNU GPL and guarantees that users will remain free to change, add to, and redistribute Linux. The artistic licensing method is more restrictive, Closed Source restricts code access, and Freeware is not a license at all. For review, see the “GNU and GPL” section.

6.B. GNU’s Not UNIX, or the GNU project, is attempting to create a UNIX-like OS. It is free and Open Source and it is not Linux (although Linux is often called GNU/Linux for GNU applications running on the Linux kernel). For review, see the “GNU and GPL” section.

7.A. GPL stands for General Public License and it was created to protect the intent of the GNU project. For review, see the “GNU and GPL” section.

8.A. The possible drawback of the GNU GPL is that it is more restrictive than some companies may prefer when distributing Open Source Software, because the source code can’t be combined with code that is not under the GPL.. For review, see the “Understanding Open Source” section.

9.C. Open Source differs from the GNU GPL by accepting certain licenses that follow the standards of Open Source. No changes can be made to the GNU GPL, and this is why it is sometimes considered to be restrictive. Open Source accepts only those licenses that follow the OSI standard. GNU GPL is a subset of the Open Source standard, but is only one of many acceptable licenses for Open Source. For review, see the “Understanding Open Source” section.

10.A. Open Source and GNU GPL both seek to guarantee the ability to freely change, add to, and redistribute software. The GNU GPL and Open Source licensing methods don’t forbid charging for distribution of software, they simply require that the software remain changeable and redistributed. This license is used to prevent restrictions on distribution and to prevent anyone from charging fees for software. For review, see the “GNU and GPL” and “Understanding Open Source” sections.

11.C. Closed Source software is meant to prevent users from accessing the source code, changing it, and then redistributing it. Closed Source doesn’t prevent others from writing updates or additions to the software, it only seeks to prevent others from accessing the source code for the software. For review, see the “Understanding Closed Source” section.

12.B. Freeware is not always Open Source because it doesn’t always allow redistribution. Freeware is not indicative of the licensing method, it just means that the copyright holder gives it away. It also doesn’t mean that you may change or improve the software and then redistribute it. For review, see the “Is Freeware really free?” section.


Chapter 1 Study Guide

13.A. POSIX is used to provide UNIX compliance. Minix is not a standard; the MULTICS project helped form the basics for UNIX; and the GNU standard is essentially a project to create a new UNIX-like kernel. For review, see the “The origin of UNIX” section and the “GNU and GPL” section.

14.D. Perl uses the Artistic license.UNIX usually uses the Closed Source method; however, this is changing because GNU uses the GPL method — as does Linux. For review, see the “Understanding Artistic License” section.

15.A. POSIX stands for Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments. It is the standard for ensuring compatibility between UNIX versions. For review, see the “The origin of UNIX” section.

16.A. Shareware is not Open Source or Closed Source, but does require a fee for its use. Usually, it is Closed Source, but this is not always the case. For review, see the “Shareware is never free?” section.

17.D. One disadvantage of Linux is that not as much commercial software has been written for it as for Microsoft or Mac OS. For review, see the “Linux limitations on the PC” section.

18.B. The Apache Web server is the most popular Web server in use on the Internet. Internet Information Server is the Microsoft Web server, while Samba is software that allows Linux access to Microsoft network services. For review, see the “Services” section.

19.A. Linux is a good server operating system because it is very stable. Although Linux is an excellent OS, it isn’t the best for every situation and it isn’t proprietary. For review, see the “Linux on servers” section.

20.C. Linux is growing so rapidly because it is easily ported to any hardware and then easily installed. It can also be easily installed on as many machines as necessary, and it isn’t limited to one machine for each GNU GPL. It can be changed and redistributed without permission from anyone. For review, see the “The Growth of Linux” section.


1.Linux can be downloaded and installed on the old PC without violating any software licensing because it is covered under the GNU GPL.

2.Install Linux on the workstations and configure any of the many Web browsers available to provide the Internet services.

3.Linux is released under an Open Source licensing method — the GNU GPL — and can be installed on any server to provide the necessary file server.

C 2H A P T E R

Linux Kernel and



1.7 Identify strengths and weaknesses of different distributions and their packaging solutions (e.g., tar ball vs. RPM/DEB)

1.9 Identify how the Linux kernel version numbering works

1.10 Identify where to obtain software and resources

28 Part I Linux Basics


1.What are the ways that the Linux kernel is released?

2.Who determines the release of the Linux kernel?

3.What does the version number of the Linux kernel signify?

4.Where are the best Linux resources?

5.What are Linux packages?

6.What are Linux applications?

7.What is a Linux distribution?

8.What are the major standard Linux distributions based on?

9.For what platforms are Linux distributions released?

10.What are the major reasons to purchase and use a Linux distribution?

Answers to these questions can be found at the end of the chapter.

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