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Concrete sleepers

  1. Interest in concrete railroad ties was revived due to material shortages after World War II.

  2. Concrete ties have become more common mainly due to greater economy and better support of the rails under high speed and heavy traffic than wooden ties. In early railway history, wood was the only material used for making ties in Europe. Even in those days, occasional shortages and increasing cost of wood posed problems. This induced engineers to seek alternatives to wooden ties. As concrete technology developed in the 19th century, concrete established its place as a versatile (=universal) building material and could be adapted to meet the requirements of railway industry.

  3. In 1877, M. Monnier, a French gardener, suggested that concrete could be used for making ties for railway track. Monnier designed a tie and obtained a patent for it, but it was not successful. Designs were further developed and the railways of Austria and Italy used the first concrete ties around the turn of the 20th century. This was closely followed by other European railways.

  4. Major progress could not be achieved until World War II, when the timbers used for ties were extremely scarce due to material shortages. Due to research carried out on French and other European railways, the modern concrete tie was developed. Heavier rail sections and long welded rails were also being produced, requiring higher-quality ties. These conditions stimulated the development of concrete ties in France, Germany and Britain, where the technology was perfected.

Ex. 6. Select nouns (on the right) which collocate with the verbs (on the left). Translate the word combinations into Russian.

  • to pose research

  • to seek the technology

  • to develop progress

  • to establish a patent

  • to meet requirements,

  • to obtain (its) place

  • to achieve technologies

  • to carry out problems

  • to perfect alternatives

Ex.7. Using the paragraph reference, search the text for the words which are similar to:

  • sleeper, thanks to, timber, to look for, universal, construction, needs, transport (Paragraph II);

  • to propose, to produce, railroad, to get, unsuccessful (Paragraph III);

  • important, deficit, to conduct, jointless tracks, to induce, to improve (Paragraph IV).

PART 4

Ex. 1. Copy and memorize the following terms.

Glossary

economic efficiency - рентабельность

heavy-haul line - грузонапряженная линия

load capacity - провозная способность

maintenance costs - эксплуатационные расходы

service life - срок службы, ресурс

switch, turnout - стрелка; стрелочный перевод

to perform - иметь (хорошие) эксплуатационные качества, функционировать

track condition(s) – состояние железнодорожного полотна

track load - нагрузка на путь

traffic load(s) - транспортная нагрузка

Ex.2. Copy and memorize the following words and phrases.

  • adverse – неблагоприятный

  • despite - несмотря на, вопреки чему-л.

  • environment – окружающая среда, экология

  • environmental – экологический

  • long-term – долгосрочный

  • obsolete – устаревший

  • to limit – ограничивать

  • to prove (oneself) – оказываться; подтверждаться на практике

  • to suffer from smth – страдать от чего-л.

Ex. 3.Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.

  1. Economic efficiency means that the "correct people" (those who can afford it) will get the "correct goods and services" (whatever they want).

  2. The Ministry of Railways has started planning for a third heavy haul railway corridor to carry coal from mines in Inner Mongolia to a new port on the Bohai Sea.

  3. These newly developed ties will hold up under service without difficulty on this heavy-haul line, with approval granted for axle loads up to 44 tonnes.

  4. Electric cars have far fewer moving parts than gasoline of diesel engined cars so routine maintenance costs are less.

  5. A product’s service life is its expected lifetime, or the acceptable period of use in service.

  6. An incorrectly set switch may result in two trains being on the same track, potentially causing a collision.

  7. In many systems, speed limits vary depending on the type of train - for example, a turnout can have a "normal" speed limit for locomotive hauled trains, and a higher speed for multiple unit (электропоезд) or high speed trains.

  8. The old 5¼ inch floppy disks are now obsolete.

  9. Most of us have suffered the consequences of stupid decisions taken by others.

  10. The design proved to be a success.

  11. The company had failed to provide a safe environment for its workers.

  12. Steel ties can be found in many locations globally; they perform adequately despite decades of service.

  13. While recommending such long-term plans, I must stress the need for flexibility.

Ex. 4.Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

  1. Светодиодные лампы (LED lamps) имеют долгий срок службы и экономят электроэнергию.

  2. Стрелочные переводы необходимы для успешной работы любой железнодорожной системы и должны быть очень надежными.

  3. В зимних условиях снег и лед могут препятствовать (prevent) нормальной работе стрелочных переводов.

  4. Куйбышевская железная дорога является одной из самых грузонапряженных дорог в сети.

  5. Испытания показали, что стальные рельсы имеют хорошие эксплуатационные качества в условиях пустыни.

  6. Вы знаете, что расходы на содержание вашего автомобиля являются слишком большими?

  7. Предприятия малого бизнеса пострадали от мирового финансового кризиса.

  8. Испытания доказали, что система работает успешно даже в неблагоприятных погодных условиях.

  9. Некоторые из этих химических веществ разрушают окружающую среду.

  10. Давайте ограничим нашу дискуссию только самыми важными фактами.

Ex. 5. Feel the difference between the words:

  • economy - ‘хозяйство, экономика , народное хозяйство

  • economics, Economics - экономика, народное хозяйство; экономическая наука

  • economic - экономический

  • economical - бережливый, расчётливый, экономичный, экономный

Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.

  1. Ireland was one of the fastest-growing economies in Western Europe in the 1990s.

  2. Unemployment is having a corrosive effect on our economy.

  3. Buying a cheap computer is a false economy.

  4. She was a supporter of the free market economy.

  5. Long-term prospects for the economy have improved.

  6. Economic growth is expected to average 2% next year.

  7. Reducing inflation is an important part of the government’s economic policy.

  8. Small towns in India serve as economic and cultural centers for the surrounding villages.

  9. The cracks in the government’s economic policy are already beginning to show.

  10. What he is talking about is the elementary law of Economics.

  11. Economic efficiency is one of the most important concepts used in Economics.

  12. It is an economical car to run. –What does it mean? – It means that it does not use too much petrol or gas.

  13. He was economical in all areas of his life.

Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian, paying attention to the constructions to be of (great) importance, to be of (special) interest.

  1. This battle was of great importance.

  2. They suddenly became silent, listening as if what he said was of the greatest importance.

  3. Nothing of any importance was agreed at their meeting.

  4. Foreign trade is of critical importance to the economy.

  5. The effect of these changes in world geopolitics and economics are of critical importance.

  6. It’s a book that will be of interest to a wide range of readers.

  7. What you do in your private life is of no interest to me.

  8. Finally, in the fourth section I will cover a few topics which I think may be of interest to everybody.

  9. It’s a matter of the greatest importance to me.

  10. Reading is of vital importance in language learning.

  11. Experience is what matters; age is of secondary importance.

Ex. 7. Read the text and translate it, using a dictionary, if necessary.

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