Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
методичка английский.doc
Скачиваний:
0
Добавлен:
09.11.2019
Размер:
541.7 Кб
Скачать

Министерство транспорта Российской Федерации

Федеральное агентство железнодорожного транспорта

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

Самарский государственный университет путей сообщения

Кафедра иностранных языков с.Я. Никитина, м.А. Терпак аНглийский язык

Методические указания для студентов II курса

специальности “Строительство железных дорог”

Самара 2012

УДК 420

Никитина С.Я., Терпак М.А. Английский язык : методические указания для студентов II курса специальности “Строительство железных дорог” / С.Я. Никитина, М.А. Терпак. – Самара : СамГУПС, 2012. – 40 с.

Утверждены на заседании кафедры ….

Печатаются по решению редакционно-издательского совета университета.

Цель методических указаний ознакомить студентов II курса с основной терминологической лексикой, а также выработать навыки перевода технических текстов и активного владения базовыми грамматическими и коммуникативными моделями современного английского языка. Методические указания составлены в соответствии с требованиями программы обучения иностранному языку студентов неязыковых специальностей, предполагающей профессионально ориентированную направленность учебного процесса.

Составители: Светлана Яковлевна Никитина

Марина Анатольевна Терпак

Рецензенты: И.А. Зайцева, кандидат педагогических наук,

доцент кафедры “Иностранные языки”

(Самарский государственный университет путей сообщения)

В.Г. Логачева, кандидат филологических наук,

доцент кафедры английской филологии

(Самарский филиал ГБОУ ВПО “Московский

городской педагогический университет”)

Под редакцией составителей

Подписано в печать …. Формат 60х90 1/16.

Усл. печ. л. 2,5. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ № ….

© Самарский государственный университет путей сообщения, 2012

UNIT ONE RAILWAY TRACK

Ex. 1. Copy and memorize the following terms.

Glossary

continuous welded rails (CWR), jointless track(s) – бесстыковой путь

crushed (broken, rock) stone ballast – щебеночный балласт

gauge – ширина колеи

load – нагрузка

loose ballast – рыхлый слой балласта

permanent way - верхнее строение пути

rail fastening – рельсовое скрепление

rail length - рельсовое звено

railway track – железнодорожный путь (полотно)

riding qualities - качество хода

slab track – путь на плитах

subgrade (formation) – земляное полотно

tamper - шпалоподбивочная машина, шпалоподбивщик

tie (=crosstie, sleeper) – шпала;

tie plate – рельсовая подкладка

to maintain – эксплуатировать, содержать

to weld – сваривать

Ex. 2. Match the English terms in column A with their Russian equivalents in column B.

A

B

  1. to lay down railway track

  1. содержание, эксплуатация

  1. concrete sleeper

  1. распределять нагрузку

  1. wooden sleeper

  1. бетонная шпала

  1. to impose the load

  1. устойчивость (железнодорожного полотна)

  1. to spread the load

  1. путеукладчик

  1. maintenance

  1. деревянная шпала

  1. track laying machine

  1. укладывать железнодорожный путь (полотно)

  1. stability

  1. прикладывать нагрузку

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.

  1. Crushed stone is distinct from gravel which is produced by natural processes of weathering and erosion, and typically has a more rounded shape.

  2. The terms tie plates, track fasteners, etc. are used to refer to parts or all of a rail fastening system. Various types of fastening have been used over the years.

  3. Various types of concrete slab track are in service in Japan, Europe and North America. In Japan, where slab track has been used for thirty years, recent slab track construction costs are 30% to 50% higher than for standard ballasted track.

  4. Some folding (складной) bicycles, designed to be as compact and light as possible, sacrifice riding qualities.

  5. The solid rocks have been weathered to form loose soil.

  6. Welded rail sections are of two types: Short Welded Rail or SWR which consists of just two or three rails welded together, and Long Welded Rail or LWR which covers anything longer. 

  7. The cost of the slab track is higher than that of ballasted track. It is expected that because of low track maintenance, the extra costs will be recovered in about 12 years of operation.

  8. The stability of track is influenced by changes in rail temperature. It is a great safety risk to railways.

  9. A ballast tamper or tamping machine is a machine used to pack (or tamp) the track ballast under railway tracks to make the tracks more durable. Before the introduction of mechanical tampers, this task was done by manual labor. As well as being faster, more accurate, more efficient and less labor-intensive, tamping machines are essential for the use of concrete sleepers because they are too heavy (usually over 250 kg) to be packed into the ballast by hand.

  10. Railroad tampers are another type of maintenance equipment that has greatly improved the efficiency and speed in maintaining the track. The newest tampers come equipped with a lot of electronics to properly align the track after tamping. Modern tampers can lift the rails to insure that the ballast is beneath the ties.

  11. Preparation of the subgrade for construction usually involves digging, in order to remove surface vegetation, topsoil and other unwanted material, and to create space for the upper layer of the pavement.

  12. Operation of railway systems requires that permanent way is constructed and maintained for the safe passage of railway vehicles.

Ex. 4. Insert missing words and translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. To guarantee t… s… under dynamic loads various techniques are used.

  2. The number and spacing of the s… depend largely on the weight of trains passing over the track.

  3. Rolling stock will affect the p… w… in differing ways. For instance, if rolling stock has been poorly maintained component wear will be accelerated thus increasing permanent way maintenance costs.

  4. W… is a method of joining two or more materials with electrically generated heat.

  5. T… m… is a vital part of the railroad industry. Proper track maintenance keeps the trains rolling along the track so that they reach their destinations safely.

  6. The track had a l… s… and demonstrated considerable problems on the heavily loaded lines, which carried steel freight trains.

  7. Thermal forces are the main longitudinal l… on railroad track.

  8. r… f… s… is a means of fixing rails to railroad ties/sleepers.

  9. Before the days of mechanized t… l…, it was common to see track laid where the sleeper density was not uniform.

  10. In Japan the m… c… for slab track are one-fourth of those for ballasted track.

Ex.5. Read the sentences, replacing the Russian words with their English equivalents.

  1. Бесстыковой путь are more expensive to lay than jointed tracks, but they have much lower maintenance costs. This type of track was used in Germany in 1924 and the US in 1930 and has become common on main lines since the 1950s.

  2. Early railway engineers did not understand the importance of quality балласт; they would use cheap and easily-available materials. It was soon clear that good-quality щебеночный балласт was necessary if there was to be a good foundation and adequate drainage.

  3. Axle нагрузки on freight railroads were 30,000 pounds in 1880, 50,000 pounds in 1906 and are 80,000 pounds today.

  4. In August 2006 a report by the Rail Accident Investigation Branch (RAIB) focused on poor track maintenance, inadequacy of the система рельсовых скреплений, and the track infrastructure.

  5. Рельсовые звенья are made as long as possible, because joints between rails are a source of weakness.

  6. Building a путь на плитах is more expensive than building traditional ballasted track.

  7. Рельсовая подкладка is a steel plate used on rail tracks between T rail and the crossties. It holds the rail to correct ширина колеи.

  8. Путь на плитах is used extensively on high-speed rail in Japan. The high-speed rail needs a very accurate rail alignment (выправка пути) to maintain passenger comfort and good качества хода. The Japanese National Railways began use of slab track over 30 years ago on the Shinkansen and narrow ширина колеи lines and it is used on over 2,400 km.

  9. Сваривать means to join metals by melting their edges and pressing them together when they are hot.

  10. It is expected that the workforce required содержать путь на плитах will be 30% lower than that required to maintain ballasted track.

  11. The деревянный bridge over the river was destroyed but shortly afterwards was replaced by a similar structure.

  12. Земляное полотно is composed of a wide range of materials although some are much better than others. 

  13. An accurate measurement of rail surface temperature based on meteorological conditions is essential for устойчивость железнодорожного пути analysis and safety management.

  14. When in service the machine is very effective, but like all шпалоподбивщики it needs a considerable amount of содержание.

  15. Railway track maintenance workers operate machines and equipment to укладывать, содержать and repair железнодорожные пути. They are employed by railway transport companies.

  16. A disadvantage of traditional верхнее строение пути is the heavy demand for maintenance.

Ex. 6. Choose the right word and translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. Railroad … works by vibrating the ballast and forcing it under the sleeper. 

  1. tampers b) loads c) qualities

  1. It’s possible … stainless steel to ordinary steel.

  1. maintain b) lay c) weld

  1. Railway sleepers are mostly made of …, although concrete, steel, stone or plastic are also used for making them.

  1. forest b) wood c) wild

  1. IR (Indian Railways) has used some …-laying equipment, but much track is still laid manually.

  1. track b) road c) rail

  1. Thermal forces are the main longitudinal … on railroad track.

a) fastening b) stability c) load

6. In fact, the origins of the standard … considerably pre-date the Roman Empire, and may even pre-date the invention of the wheel.

a) gauge b) tamper c) stone

  1. … is one of the most accessible natural resources, and is a major basic raw material used by construction, agriculture, and other industries.

  1. crush stoned b) crushed stone c) crush stone

  1. … workers generally work between the hours of 7:00pm and 4:00am, when rail traffic is lighter.

a) maintenance track b) track maintenance c) main track

9. The block of softwood can be used to … the load when using the hammer.

a) speed b) fasten c) spread

10. Traditionally, … have been made of wood, but … is now widely used.

a) rails; concrete b) ties; concrete c) tie; concrete

11. It is important that each person involved with ___maintenance receives training appropriate to that person’s responsibilities.

a) permanent way b) constant way c) permanent road

Тут вы можете оставить комментарий к выбранному абзацу или сообщить об ошибке.

Оставленные комментарии видны всем.