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методичка английский.doc
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Stone block

The type of sleeper used on the predecessors of the first true railway (Liverpool and Manchester Railway) consisted of a pair of stone blocks laid into the ground; the chairs hold the rails fixed to those blocks. One advantage of this method of construction was that it allowed horses to tread the middle path without the risk of tripping.

In railway use with ever heavier locomotives, it was found that it was hard to maintain the correct gauge. The stone blocks were in any case unsuitable on soft ground, where something like timber sleepers had to be used. Two centuries later, stone sleepers would reappear in the form of slab track.

Wooden sleepers

Timber ties are usually of a variety of hardwoods; oak is a popular material. Some lines use softwoods; however, they are more susceptible to wear. Timber ties are often heavily creosoted. Creosote treating can reduce insect infestation and rot. Less often, ties are treated with other preservatives. New preserving technologies are being employed by major railroads in order to extend the life of wood ties in wet areas. Some timbers are durable enough that they can be used untreated.

Problems with wood ties include rot, splitting, insect infestation, etc. Abrasive damage to the tie may be caused by lateral motion of the tie plate). One more problem with timber ties may be spike-pull when the spike is gradually worked out and loosened from the tie.

Ex. 5. Translate the words given in the box into English and fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.

насекомое абразивный расщепляться износ

заражать антисептик (предохраняющее средство)

  1. Apply a wood ___ that can be painted over or varnished afterwards.

  2. Full of fruit with no artificial ___ or colorings, they taste just like home-made jam.

  3. The juice contains no artificial ___.

  4. If insects, rats etc ___ a place, there are a lot of them and they usually cause damage.

  5. Dalton said that the machine showed signs of heavy ___ and had not been well-maintained.

  6. Excessive tyre ___ may be caused by faulty brakes.

  7. Modern alloys are resistant to ___ and distortion.

  8. The branch ___ under their weight.

  9. One of the boxes has ___ open.

  10. Rub the table down with a fine ___ paper before painting it.

  11. Don’t forget to bring ___ repellant (=a chemical to keep insects away).

  12. Birds become quieter in the afternoon, while butterflies and other ___ are more active, feeding on the opened flowers.


Ex.1. Copy the following words and phrases and memorize their meanings.

due to - вследствие; в результате; из-за

scarce - недостаточный, скудный

shortage - нехватка, недостаток; дефицит

to induce - побуждать, склонять, убеждать

to pose a problem - стать (причиной) проблемы

to seek - искать

Ex.2. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. She has been absent from work due to illness.

  2. He had to withdraw due to a knee injury.

  3. Water is always scarce in these parts.

  4. Food was scarce and expensive.

  5. Details of the accident are scarce.

  6. There’s no shortage of ideas when it comes to improving the education of children.

  7. A world energy shortage is far more dangerous and could even lead to wars.

  8. Many companies are suffering from a shortage of skilled staff.

  9. Nothing would induce me to vote for him again.

  10. This could pose a problem to jobs in the coal industry.

  11. His ill health poses serious problems for the future.

  12. They came here to seek shelter from biting winter winds.

  13. Drivers are advised to seek alternative routes.

Ex. 3. The prefix re- means ‘again. Translate the italicized verbs using their dictionary definitions.

  • to re-route - to send vehicles, planes, telephone calls etc to a different place from the one where they were originally going (to redirect);

  • to reengineer - to improve the design of a product;

  • to refresh - to make someone remember something;

  • to rewrite - to change something that has been written, especially in order to improve it, or because new information is available;

  • to recycle - to put used objects or materials through a special process so that they can be used again.

Ex. 4. Practice your grammar paying attention to the verb “follow” in Passive.

  1. In English, the letter Q is always followed by U.

  2. China’s first nuclear test in October 1964 was closely followed by a second in May 1965.

  3. Did you make sure you weren't followed on the way over here?

  4. Each chapter is followed by a set of exercises.

  5. She complained to the police officer that she was being followed by two strangers.

  6. Along with the increased possibilities of a recession, the energy crisis was immediately followed by a new inflationary leap.

  7. I think we’re being followed.

Ex. 5. Read the text and translate it, using a dictionary, if necessary.

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