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Wrought-iron and steel rails

The first improvements of cast-iron rails were rails of wrought-iron, introduced in 1820 in England, where the first steel rail was also manufactured. The manufacture of steel rails in the United States began in 1865, and they are now used throughout the world. Metallurgical advances in the 20th century greatly improved the quality of rail steel. Previously, transverse cracks often developed inside rails during use, until engineers discovered that these cracks were caused by uneven cooling of the rails after their hardening. All rails manufactured for use in the United States now undergo a process of controlled cooling and inspection to prevent such defects. Usually they are also hardened at the ends by heat treatment.

Heavier trains requiring stronger track resulted in much heavier rails. The iron rails used in early railroading weighed less than about 20 kg/m, and the steel rails used at the beginning of the 20th century in many cases were not heavier than about 30kg/m. In the 1930s rails weighing 50 kg/m or more or in some instances more than about 65 kg/m were used. Rails manufactured today for mainline use may weigh as much as 75.5 to 77 kg/m.

Ex. 11. Put questions to the underlined words.

  1. The first improvement on cast-iron rails were rails of wrought-iron, introduced in 1820 in England.

  2. Engineers discovered that transverse cracks were caused by uneven cooling of the rails after their hardening.

  3. Usually all rails are hardened at the ends by heat treatment.

  4. The steel rails used at the beginning of the 20th century in many cases were about 30kg/m.

  5. The manufacture of steel rails in the United States began in 1865.

  6. Heavier trains requiring stronger track resulted in much heavier rails.

  7. Transverse cracks often developed inside rails during use, until engineers discovered that these cracks were caused by uneven cooling of the rails after their hardening.

  8. Rails manufactured today for mainline use may weigh as much as 75.5 to 77 kg/m.

Ex. 12. Without looking at the text unscramble the following sentences.

  1. The ufacmanture of steel rails in the United States began in 1865.

  2. Temarulgillac advances in the 20th century greatly improved the quality of rail steel.

  3. Usually all rails are hardened at the ends by thea treatment.

  4. The first tipmenmover on cast-iron rails were rails of wrought-iron.

  5. The steel rails used at the beginning of the 20th nutycer in many cases were not heavier than about 30kg/m.

UNIT FOUR JOINTED TRACK

Ex. 1. To refresh your memory translate the following terms into Russian.

  • riding

  • maintenance qualities

  • continuous welded rail

  • rail length

  • tie plate

    • subgrade (formation)

    • to weld

    • gauge

    • rail fastening

    • track structure (permanent way)

Ex. 2. Copy and memorize the following terms.

Glossary

bolt head - головка болта

bolt hole - отверстие под болт

derailment - сход (поезда) с рельсов

expansion - расширение

fishplate, joint bar - стыковая накладка (для перекрытия стыков рельсов)

gap - зазор (между рельсами)

joint - стык

jointed track - звеньевой путь

rail end - конец рельса

rail head - головка рельса

siding - запасный, подъездной путь; ветка

to bolt - скреплять болтами

to join - соединять

to misalign - смещать(ся)

Ex. 3. Copy the following words and memorize their meanings.

because of - из-за

even - ровный

expansion - расширение

hole - отверстие, дыра

suitable - пригодный, подходящий

to allow for -учитывать

to cause - заставить; причинять (ущерб)

to lead to smth. - приводить к чему-л., быть причиной чего-л.

to shear - срезать

Ex.4. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. It will take about an hour to get there, allowing for traffic delays.

  2. All these factors must be allowed for.

  3. Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design.

  4. A derailment is an accident on a railway or tramway in which a rail vehicle, or part or all of a train, leaves the tracks on which it is travelling, with consequent damage and in many cases injury and/or death. There are several main causes of derailment: broken or misaligned rails, excessive speed, faults in the train and its wheels, and collisions with obstructions on the track.

  5. A siding is a short railway track connected to a main track, where trains are kept when they are not being used.

  6. He had to retire because of ill health.

  7. Because of his wife’s being there, I said nothing about it.

  8. After driving for so long on the gravel I was glad to get on an even stretch of road.

  9. Make sure the floor is even before you lay the carpet.

  10. The house would be suitable for a large family.

  11. Heavy traffic is causing delays on the freeway.

  12. The availability of video games has led to an epidemic of youth violence.

Ex.5. Read the sentences, replacing the Russian words with their English equivalents.

  1. The builders had cut отверстия into the soft stone to support the ends of the beams.

  2. The fire причинять £15,000 worth of damage.

  3. Applicants for the position must have подходящий work experience.

  4. We spent three hours waiting in the rain из-за you!

  5. Расширение is the increase in the dimensions of a body or substance when subjected to an increase in temperature, internal pressure, etc.

  6. He knows that more information can приводить к a better, simpler solution. 

  7. Сход с рельсов can also occur as a secondary effect in the aftermath of a collision between two or more trains.

  8. The tornado срезать part of the Swensons’ roof.

  9. Соединять the two pieces of wood with strong glue.

  10. You have допускать a certain amount of error.

Ex.6. Put the verbs in brackets into the required tense form. Translate the sentences into Russian.

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