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  1. He was thrown backwards by the ­­­___ of the explosion.

  1. measure b) force c) weight

  1. ___ the pan before you pour the batter in.

  1. load b) estimate c) grease

  1. Our total ___ budget is about £1,000.

  1. annual b) local c) electrical

  1. Ignoring safety procedures can have potentially tragic ___.

  1. consequences b) forces c) results

  1. The coefficient of thermal ___ describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. 

  1. increase b) decrease c) expansion

  1. An electric ___ is a flow of electricity through a wire or circuit.

  1. length b) current c) gauge

  1. Near absolute zero, however, molecules have much less ___ energy.

  1. heat b) cool c) thermal

  1. The study was empty; the light came from the ___ room.

  1. adjacent b) next c) following

  1. Thermit ___ is a welding process for joining two electrical conductors that employs superheated copper alloy to permanently join the conductors.

  1. welding b) joining c) laying

  1. Companies report to their shareholders ___.

  1. continuously b) annually c) mainly

Ex. 6. Translate the sentences; put special questions to the underlined words.

  1. The force of the explosion blew out all the windows.

  2. In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape.

  3. Grease is a thick, oily substance which is put on the moving parts of cars and other machines in order to make them work smoothly.

  4. The electronic and printing unit has annual sales of about $80 million.

  5. The exhibition is held annually.

  6. If river levels continue to rise, it will have very serious consequences for many people’s homes.

  7. When hydrogen and oxygen are combined in a fuel cell, an electrochemical reaction generates an electric current.

  8. High-temperature electrolysis uses a large amount of electrical and thermal energy.

  9. Fields adjacent to the nuclear facility were found to have high levels of radioactivity.

  10. If you are buying a house or land adjacent to the railway, we have general information that you may find useful.

Ex. 7. Read the text and translate it, using a dictionary, if necessary.

Continuous welded track

Continuous welded track was developed in response to the observation that the bulk of track maintenance work takes place at the joints. It is worth mentioning that jointed track has suffered from buckling in the past; the fishplates need to be removed and greased annually (the requirement was relaxed to bi-annually in 1993).

Where this was forgotten or where ballast conditions were especially weak, buckling took place in hot weather.

As steel production and manufacturing processes improved, the rail lengths installed were progressively increased, and the natural consequence of this would be to eliminate the joints altogether.

A major obstacle to doing so is thermal expansion: the rails expand in higher temperatures. Without joints, there is no room for the rails to expand; as the rails get warmer they will develop an enormous force in trying to expand.

The CWR is installed and fastened down at an optimum temperature, to ensure that the highest possible expansive force is limited. In the UK this temperature is 27 C°.

The CWR rails are made by welding ordinary rails together. For many years rails could only be made in lengths of up to 60 ft (18 288mm) in Britain, and the factory welding process made them into 600, 900 or 1200 ft lengths, depending on the factory. The process used was a flash-butt process in which high electric currents are used to soften the rail end, and the ends are then forced together. The flash-butt process is very reliable, providing that the factory ensured good geometry of the rail ends.

The long rails could be conveyed to site by special trains.

The long rails had to be welded together (or to adjacent track) using a site welding process, and after initial experimentation the proprietary thermit welding process was used.

Ex. 8. Fill in the table with the appropriate forms of the adjectives.

Positive Degree

Comparative Degree

Superlative Degree

heavier

stronger

early

less

much

impossible

heavier

the worst

greater

difficult

Ex. 9. Match the halves of the given sentences together.

A

B

  1. Much of track maintenance work takes place …

  1. buckling.

  1. In the past, jointed track has suffered from …

  1. an enormous force in trying to expand.

  1. The rails expand …

  1. welding ordinary rails together.

  1. Where ballast conditions were weak, …

  1. at the joints.

  1. The fishplates are removed and greased …

  1. reliable.

  1. As the rails get warmer they will develop …

  1. an optimum temperature.

  1. The CWR is installed and fastened down at …

  1. special trains.

  1. The CWR rails are made by …

  1. buckling took place in hot weather.

  1. The flash-butt process is very …

  1. annually.

  1. The long rails could be conveyed to site by …

  1. in higher temperatures.

Ex. 10. Replace Russian words with their English equivalents and translate the sentences.

  1. Выпучивание железнодорожных рельсов takes place in hot weather where ballast conditions are especially weak.

  2. The process used was a стыковая сварка оплавлением in which high electric currents are used to soften the rail end.

  3. As the rails get warmer they will develop an enormous сила in trying to расширять.

  4. The fishplates need to be removed and смазывать annually.

  5. The CWR is installed and скреплять at an optimum temperature.

  6. The long rails had to be welded together using a сварка при монтаже.

  7. The rail lengths installed were progressively increased, and the логическое следствие of this would be to eliminate the joints altogether.

  8. A special regulation prescribes the minimum spacing between соседний путь.

  9. The coefficient of тепловое расширение describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. 

  10. The passage of электрический ток created huge magnetic forces which constricted the tube.

UNIT SIX TIES (SLEEPERS)

PART 1

Ex. 1. To refresh your memory translate the following terms into Russian.

  • gauge

  • crushed stone

  • transverse

  • tie, crosstie (AmE), sleeper (BrE)

  • drainage

  • tie plate

  • to fasten (down)

  • track structure (permanent way)

  • riding qualities

  • weight

Ex. 2. Copy and memorize the following terms.

Glossary

composite ties - составные шпалы

concrete - бетон

drainage - дренаж

flexibility - упругость

plastic tie - пластиковая шпала

railroad spike - рельсовый костыль

rectangular - прямоугольный

timber, wood - древесина

to transfer the load - передавать нагрузку

Ex.3. Translate the sentences into Russian.

  1. A number of companies sell composite railroad ties manufactured from recycled plastic resins, and recycled rubber. These ties are said to outlast the classic wooden ties.

  2. Plastics composite PermaTiesTM ties are exceptionally durable; they are ideal for harsh, extreme industrial manufacturing or mining track conditions.

  3. We invite you to compare the composite ties to wood, concrete and other composite ties and see the advantages for yourself.

  4. Concrete is a substance used for building that is made by mixing sand, small stones,

cement, and water.

  1. Concrete is a building material made from a mixture of broken stone or gravel, sand, cement, and water, which can be spread or poured into moulds and forms a stone-like mass on hardening.

  2. The drainage system over some sections of route has had to be refurbished or renewed.

  3. Drainage of track is the most important factor for the proper maintenance of track. Water softens the formation unless it is drained away as soon as it falls on the track.

  4. Regular examination, inspection and routine maintenance of drainage systems is essential.

  5. Neglect of drainage problems will inevitably lead to track problems.

  6. If the permanent way or track structure is to be maintained at a suitable standard for the passage of freight or high speed passenger trains, adequate drainage must be installed in new or upgraded track and existing drainage must be maintained so that it works effectively.

  7. The one drawback (disadvantage) to concrete is that because of its rigid qualities it does not have the same flexibility as wood, or even composite ties. 

  8. Heavy stone blocks used as early sleepers offered little flexibility and were replaced by timber sleepers.

  9. Railroad ties are being made out of plastic now.

  10. Axion International Holdings has won a $957,000 contract to provide the U.S. Army with two bridges made from a recycled plastic. Axion says that its recycled plastic railroad ties are actually longer-lasting that typical creosote-treated wood railroad ties.

Ex. 4. Read the text and translate it, using a dictionary, if necessary.

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