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Урок 1.

Тема: Нефтегазовая промышленность России.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Oil and Gas Industry of Russia”.

In Russia the oil and gas industry is historically regarded as being one of the most important sectors of the economy, as the revenue it generates forms a major component of the country’s budget. The oil and gas industry is currently the main source of the state’s tax revenues and currency revenues. Russia’s oil reserves are the third largest in the world. Russia is also a major producer of natural gas.

The development of the Russian oil and gas industry began in the mid-19th century with

the development of oil deposits in the Northern Caucasus. The discovery and development of oil and gas deposits in the Volga, Urals, and Timan-Pechora areas led to a significant increase

in the volumes of oil extraction in the first half of the 20th century. The development of major basins in Siberia, Timan-Pechora, the Caspian, and the Far East resulted in a record quantity of oil being extracted in 1988. Extraction levels fell at the beginning of the 1990s, but are now once again on the increase.

The oil industry plays a significant role in Russia’s macroeconomy, investment environment, infrastructure development, politics and foreign policy.

Given its central role in the economy, it is logical that oil is a significant driver of both domestic and foreign investment.

The Russian oil industry presents tremendous opportunities for firms, particularly in areas of engineering services, technical consulting and finance (raising capital, auditing).

Oil and gas are more than commodities and are also, tools of international power, components of foreign policy, elements of national security and a source of national pride.

Gas industry of the country is still a system-forming industry. It moves towards new economic relations following its own way, which is absolutely different from that of oilmen, coal miners or power engineers. The most important task set for the gas industry for the present is to be a reliable guarantor of supplying gas in required volumes, in due time and in due place both inside Russia and to European countries.

Gas industry not only stabilizes economy it also can initiate a breakthrough into a new technological era and facilitate deep structural transformation of the economy.

Russian gas industry is reach in unique industrial production experience, qualified stuff, it has assumed a position of a strategic operator on solvent gas markets in Europe, it disposes of colossal reserves of hydrocarbons, a unique natural resource base that, when reasonably used, ensures successful development of the industry for the next decades.

Russia plays a significant part in the formation of world prices owing to the large volumes of oil and gas that Russia supplies to the world market.

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Слова к тексту.

regard – рассматривать, считать revenue – годовой доход

currently – теперь, в настоящее время tax – налог

currency – деньги, валюта proven – доказанный

oil extraction – добыча нефти investment – капиталовложение

auditing – аудит, ревизия, контрольная проверка commodities – товар

tool – инструмент, оружие move – двигаться

in due time – в свое время initiate – положить начало breakthrough – прорыв facilitate – способствовать

reach – область, влияние, сфера assume – принимать на себя dispose – располагать reasonably – разумно

ensure – обеспечивать

supply – снабжать, поставлять decade – десятилетие discovery - открытие

quantity - количество increase - увеличение significant - значительный opportunity - возможность reliable – надежный volume – объем

market - рынок price - цена

formation – образование successful - успешный producer – производитель

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

исторически, важный, годовой доход, главный источник, запасы нефти, производитель, развитие, месторождения нефти, разработка нефтегазовых месторождений, объемы, увеличение, внешняя политика, представлять, товар, безопасность, национальная гордость, различный, нефтяник, важная задача, в своем месте, прорыв, платежеспособность, располагать, углеводороды, успешный, десятилетие, мировые цены.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания:

important sector of the economy discovery of oil and gas deposits significant increase of oil extraction

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tremendous opportunities for firms tools of international power elements of national security system-forming industry

new economic relations

deep structural transformation position of a strategic operator

Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки:

1. gas industry

1.

значительная роль

2. in the world

2.

особенно

3. natural gas

3.

надежный гарант

4. quantity

4.

горняк

5. significant role

5.

газовая промышленность

6. development

6.

в мире

7. particularly

7.

количество

8. engineering service

8.

техническая служба

9. coal miner

9.

разработка

10. reliable guarantor

10. природный газ

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки:

1.

открытие

1. revenue

2.

необходимые объемы

2. oil industry

3.

годовой доход

3. discovery

4.

энергетик

4. central role

5.

может положить начало

5. opportunities

6.

образование

6. power engineer

7.

мировой рынок

7. required volumes

8.

нефтяная промышленность

8. can initiate

9.

центральная роль

9. world market

10. возможности

10. formation

Упр. 5. Составьте предложения, соединив части А и В:

А

1.The Russia oil industry present

2.Gas industry of the country is

3.The oil and gas industry is currently

4.Extraction levels fell

5.Russia plays a significant part

6.It moves towards new economic relations

7.Russia’s oil reserves are

8.In Russia the oil and gas industry is historically regarded

B

1. following its own way.

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2.the third largest in the world.

3.as being one of the most important sectors of the economy.

4.still a system-forming industry.

5.tremendous opportunities for firms.

6.in the formation of world prices.

7.at the beginning of the 1990s

8.the main source of the state’s tax revenues.

Упр. 6. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Gas industry is still a system-forming industry.

2.The Russian oil industry presents tremendous opportunities for firms.

3.The development of the Russian oil and gas industry began in the mid-19th century.

4.The oil and gas industry is being regarded as one of the most important sectors

of the economy.

5.In the future gas will remain a major source of foreign currency revenue generated by Russian export.

6.For a long time Russian oil industry has developed very intensively.

7.Since 1986, oil prices have been marked by volatility.

8.Gas Industry can initiate a breakthrough into a new technological era.

Упр. 7. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1.Россия является основным производителем природного газа.

2.Развитие российской нефтяной промышленности началось в середине 19 века с разработки нефтяных месторождений на Северном Кавказе.

3.Российская нефтяная промышленность предоставляет громадные возможности для фирм.

4.Газовая промышленность страны является по-прежнему системо-образующей промышленностью.

5.Россия играет значительную роль в формировании мировых цен на нефть и газ.

6.Открытие и разработка нефтегазовых месторождений в первой половине 20 века привели к значительному увеличению объемов добычи нефти.

7.Главная задача для газовой промышленности в настоящее время быть надежным гарантом поставки газа.

8.Развивающаяся российская экономика нуждается в серьезном инвестировании в нефтегазовый сектор.

9.В России нефтегазовая промышленность исторически считается самым важным сектором национальной экономики.

10.Россия поставляет огромные объемы нефти и газа на мировой рынок.

Упр. 8. Пользуясь словарем, письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1.The present situation of Russian oil and gas industry is described as a drastic change of resource structure and quality of hydrocarbons in developed and discovered oil and gas fields.

2.The prospects of Russian oil and gas industry significantly depend on unexplored resources.

3.At present, Russian oil and gas industry is seeking a way out from previous dramatic decline of hydrocarbon production.

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4.The petroleum industry’s chief troubles usually have arisen from overproduction: too much output, too little demand, too low a price, too little profit.

5.Russia’s enormous oil and gas resources combined with a new willingness to attract in rapid growth of the national economy in the next century.

6.The new chapter of history of Russian oil and gas industry already has been opened and it will be a story of the glorious success.

7.Future development of Russian oil and gas industry will depend on some crucial factors and among them sufficient foreign investments to oil and gas industry, and also in pipeline construction and rehabilitation.

8.The Russian gas industry is presently focused on innovationsdriven development, and this key target has become central for all Gasprom affiliates activities.

9.The time is running fast – and the Russian gas industry and Gasprom have become the central contributors to energy security of the second-generation Europeans.

10.The Russian government generally has welcomed intention for investment and its policy has been enable such deals to be made without necessity of overcoming major hurdles.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на вопросы:

1.How is oil and gas industry historically regarded?

2.When did the development of the Russian oil and gas industry begin?

3.What does oil industry present for firms?

4.What is the most important task set for the gas industry?

5.What can gas industry initiate?

6.What led to a significant increase in the volumes of oil extraction in the first half of the 20th century?

7.The oil industry plays a significant role in Russia’s politics and foreign policy, does not it?

8.Are oil and gas more than commodities?

9.What is still a system-forming industry?

10.Why does Russia play an important part in the formation of word prices?

Упр. 10. Обсудите содержание текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы:

According to the text; I can add; the subject of the text is; I’d like to say that; as a matter of fact; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion; I’d like to say some words about; it’s important to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; the text is about; the text deals with; the content of the text; it should be noted that.

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Урок 2.

Тема: Технология добычи нефти.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Petroleum engineering”.

The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. Midstream operations are usually included in the downstream category.

Petroleum is vital to many industries, and is of importance to the maintenance of industrial civilization itself, and thus is a critical concern for many nations.

Petroleum engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Subsurface activities are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry, which are the activities of finding and producing hydrocarbons. Refining and distribution to a market are referred to as the downstream sector. Exploration, by earth scientists, and petroleum engineering are the oil and gas industry's two main subsurface disciplines, which focus on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. Petroleum geology and geophysics focus on provision of a static description of the hydrocarbon reservoir rock, while petroleum engineering focuses on estimation of the recoverable volume of this resource using a detailed understanding of the physical behavior of oil, water and gas within porous rock at very high pressure.

The combined efforts of geologists and petroleum engineers throughout the life of a hydrocarbon accumulation determine the way in which a reservoir is developed and depleted, and usually they have the highest impact on field economics. Petroleum engineering requires a good knowledge of many other related disciplines, such as geophysics, petroleum geology, formation evaluation (well logging), drilling, economics, reservoir simulation, well engineering, artificial lift systems, and oil and gas facilities engineering.

Petroleum engineering has become a technical profession that involves extracting oil in increasingly difficult situations as much of the "low hanging fruit" of the world's oil fields has been found and depleted. Improvements in computer modeling, materials and the application of statistics, probability analysis, and new technologies like horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery, have drastically improved the toolbox of the petroleum engineer in recent decades.

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Слова к тексту.

petroleum engineering – технология добычи нефти; нефтегазовое дело production – добыча, производство

hydrocarbons – углеводороды crude oil – сырая нефть subsurface – недра, подземный deem – полагать, считать

upstream – разведка и добыча нефти refer – относиться, ссылаться

downstream – транспортировка, переработка и сбыт нефтепродуктов exploration – разведка

recovery – извлечение, добыча reservoir – хранилище, резервуар provision – снабжение, обеспечение porous rock – пористая порода pressure – давление

determine – определять

deplete – истощать, исчерпывать

evaluation – оценка параметров продуктивного пласта artificial lift – механизированная эксплуатация

enhanced oil recovery – добыча нефти усовершенствованными методами pharmaceuticals – лекарственные средства

solvent – растворитель fertilizer – удобрение

midstream – переработка, хранение и транспортировка нефти drilling – бурение

concern – касаться, описывать, иметь отношение

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

техническая дисциплина, природный газ, нефтегазовая промышленность, очистка, рынок, рассматривать, главный, снабжение, пористая порода, высокое давление, образование, бурение, механизированная эксплуатация, компьютерное моделирование, горизонтальное бурение, окружающая среда, инженер-нефтяник, сырье, химические продукты, разделять, важность.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания:

production of hydrocarbons subsurface activities upstream sector

reservoir rock recoverable volume physical behavior of oil determine the way technical profession three major components physical behavior of oil

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Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1. activity

1.

требовать

2. distribution

2.

улучшение

3. recovery of hydrocarbons

3.

деятельность

4. combined efforts

4.

применение статистики

5. accumulation

5.

совместные усилия

6. require

6.

трубопровод

7. related disciplines

7.

распределение

8. improvement

8.

извлечение углеводородов

9. application of statistic

9.

родственные дисциплины

10. pipeline

10. накопление

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

нефтепродукты

1. exploration

2.

последнее десятилетие

2. subsurface reservoir

3.

мировые процессы

3. extracting oil

4.

подземное хранилище

4. new technologies

5.

разведка

5. the highest paid

6.

добыча нефти

6. global processes

7.

высокооплачиваемый

7. petroleum products

8.

очистка

8. midstream operation

9.

операции по транспортировке нефти

9. refining

10. новые технологии

10. recent decade

Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Petroleum engineering requires a good knowledge of many other related disciplines.

2.Midstream operations are usually included in the downstream category.

3.Petroleum engineering has become a technical profession.

4.Petroleum is vital to many industries.

5.The completion system must also be efficient and cost effective to achieve maximum production and financial goals.

6.Originally, the role of reservoir engineering was exclusively that of counting oil and natural gas reserves.

7.Reservoir behavior can be simulated using models.

8.The engineering involved in various production processes is constantly being changed and improved with new advances in technology.

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.Refining and distribution to a market are referred to as the downstream sector.

2.Petroleum engineering has historically been one of the highest paid engineering disciplines.

3.Relational databases and advanced computer graphics are used in petroleum exploration.

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4.The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol).

5.The technical control of production is also part of modern engineering.

6.The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting and marketing petroleum products.

7.Petroleum engineering has become a technical profession.

8.Engineering is usually viewed in the context of a specific branch of production.

Упр. 7. Составьте предложения, соединив части А и В.

А

1.Petroleum industry is a vital to many industries

2.Petroleum is also the raw material

3.Petroleum engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with

4.Petroleum engineering has historically been

5.The industry is usually divided into three main components

B

1.one of the highest paid engineering disciplines.

2.the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons.

3.upstream, midstream and downstream.

4.and is of importance to the maintenance of industrial civilization itself.

5.for many chemical products.

Упр. 8. Переведите предложения на английский язык:

1.Нефтяная промышленность охватывает общие процессы разведки, добычи, очистки, транспортировки и сбыта нефтепродуктов.

2.Значительное количество продукции нефтяной промышленности - это жидкое топливо и бензин.

3.Нефтедобыча — сложный производственный процесс, включающий в себя геологоразведку, бурение скважин и их ремонт, очистку добытой нефти от воды, серы, парафина и многое другое.

4.Нефть является сырьём для многих химических продуктов.

5.Современная добыча нефти осуществляется посредством бурения скважин с последующим извлечением нефти и сопутствующих ей газов и воды.

6.Нефтедобывающая и нефтеперерабатывающая промышленность оказывает существенное воздействие на окружающую среду.

7.Нефтяным промыслом называется технологический комплекс, состоящий из скважин, газопроводов, и установок различного назначения, с помощью которых на месторождении осуществляют извлечение черного золота из недр Земли.

8.Нефть и газ являются одной из основ российской экономики, важнейшим источником экспортных поступлений страны.

9.Почти вся добываемая в мире нефть, извлекается посредством буровых скважин, закрепленных стальными трубами высокого давления.

10.Рост добычи нефти достигнут за счет открытия новых месторождений и залежей нефти в пределах разрабатываемых площадей, внедрения альтернативных способов добычи.

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Упр. 9. Пользуясь словарем, письменно переведите следующие предложения:

1.After an oil or gas accumulation is discovered, technical supervision of the reservoir is transferred to the petroleum engineering group.

2.The Russian term tekhnologiia also refers to the operations of extracting, processing, reprocessing, transporting, and storing materials; such operations are the basic components of the production process.

3.The technical control of production is also part of modern engineering.

4.It is customary to use the term tekhnologiia for descriptions of production processes, instructions for performing such processes, engineering codes, specifications and requirements, charts, diagrams, and the like.

5.The goal of engineering as a science is to discover physical, chemical, mechanical, and other regularities in order to define and put into practice the most efficient and economical production processes, requiring the least expenditure of time and material resources.

6.Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g., chemistry and physics), and life sciences (e.g., biology, microbiology and biochemistry) with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.

7.Chemical engineering largely involves the design, improvement and maintenance of processes involving chemical or biological transformations for large-scale manufacture.

8.Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation (house or home) and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites.

9.The oil and gas industry in the Russian Federation continues to provide a wealth of exciting opportunities for foreign businessmen.

10.The Russian oil industry is in need of huge investment. Strong growth in the Russian economy means that local demand for energy of all types (oil, gas, nuclear, coal, hydro, electricity) is continuing to grow.

Упр. 10. Расскажите, что нового вы узнали из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы:

The subject of the text is; the text deals with; as a matter of fact; it is pointed out that; it should be noted that; according to the text; I can add; the subject of the text is; I’d like to say that; as a matter of fact; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

В своём рассказе дайте ответы на следующие вопросы:

What does petroleum industry include?

Is petroleum industry divided into three major components?

What is petroleum engineering?

What is referred to as the downstream sector?

Petroleum engineering has become a technical profession, hasn’t it?

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Урок 3.

Тема: Специализация инженеров нефтяников.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Types of petroleum engineers”.

Petroleum engineers divide themselves into several types: reservoir engineers, drilling engineers, production engineers. Reservoir engineers work to optimize production of oil and gas via proper well placement, production rates, and enhanced oil recovery techniques. Drilling engineers manage the technical aspects of drilling exploratory, production and injection wells. Production engineers, including subsurface engineers, manage the interface between the reservoir and the well, including perforations, sand control, downhole flow control, and downhole monitoring equipment; evaluate artificial lift methods; and also select surface equipment that separates the produced fluids (oil, natural gas, and water).

The working tools of the reservoir engineer are subsurface geology, applied mathematics, and the basic laws of physics and chemistry governing the behavior of liquid and vapor phases of crude oil, natural gas, and water in reservoir rock. Reservoir engineers also play a central role in field development planning, recommending appropriate and cost effective reservoir depletion schemes such as waterflooding or gas injection to maximize hydrocarbon recovery. Due to legislative changes in many hydrocarbon producing countries, they are also involved in the design and implementation of carbon sequestration projects in order to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases.

Drilling engineers design and implement procedures to drill wells as safely and economically as possible. They work closely with the drilling contractor, service contractors, and compliance personnel, as well as with geologists and other technical specialists. The drilling engineer has the responsibility for ensuring that costs are minimized while getting information to evaluate the formations penetrated, protecting the health and safety of workers and other personnel, and protecting the environment. Drilling engineers are in charge of the process of planning and drilling the wells. Drilling engineers are often degreed as petroleum engineers, although they may come from other technical disciplines and subsequently be trained by an oil and gas company. They also may have practical experience as a rig hand or mud logger or mud engineer.

Production engineers design and select equipment to extract and treat oil and gas well fluids. They are often degreed as petroleum engineers. The production engineer, upon consultation with the petrophysical and reservoir engineers, plans the completion procedure for the well. This involves a choice of setting a liner across the formation or perforating a casing that has been extended and cemented across the reservoir, selecting appropriate pumping techniques, and choosing the surface collection, dehydration, and storage facilities.

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Слова к тексту.

reservoir engineer – инженер-промысловик drilling engineer – инженер-буровик

production engineer – инженер-эксплуатационник well bore – буровая скважина

placement – размещение, расположение injection – нагнетание, закачка

subsurface engineer – инженер по заканчиванию скважин down hole – забой скважины

flow – поток, струя, течение drainage – дренирование, осушение vapor – пар, испаряться

appropriate – предназначать, подходящий waterflooding – заводнение

involve – вовлекать, затрагивать, включать в себя implementation – внедрение, осуществление sequestration - конфискация, удаление

compliance personnel – персонал вневедомственного контроля ensuring – обеспечивать, гарантировать

penetrate – проходить, углубляться, проникать sought reserves – найденные залежи

access – иметь доступ, достигать acquiring – приобретать, получать lease – участок, отвод

equipment – оборудование

completion – завершение, заканчивание

casing – обсадная труба (колонна), крепление обсадными трубами dehydration – дегидратация, обезвоживание

facilities – средства, оборудование, устройства

drilling exploratory – разведочно-эксплуатационное бурение drilling contractor – буровой подрядчик

behavior – работа, поведение, характер

mud engineer – инженер по буровым растворам rig hand – работник буровой установки

mud logger – работник буровой бригады, ответственный за контроль бурового раствора depletion plan – проект разработки

software engineer – программист

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

инженер-нефтяник, добыча нефти и газа, скважина, бурение, резервуар, выбирать, оборудование, инструмент, сырая нефть, коллекторная порода, углерод, безопасность, ответственность, окружающая среда, достигать, глубина, инженер по буровым растворам, заводнение, выбор, образование, хранение, обезвоживание, внедрение, характер, средство, поток, удаление.

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Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания:

oil recovery techniques downhole flow control artificial lift methods high economic recovery field development legislative changes drilling contractor geological survey practical experience pumping techniques

Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1. production engineer

1.

характер движения жидкости

2. drilling exploratory

2.

прикладная математика

3. equipment

3.

хранилище

4. applied mathematic

4.

инженер по буровым растворам

5. behavior of liquid

5.

обслуживающий подрядчик

6. waterflooding

6.

разведочно-эксплуатационное бурение

7. service contractor

7.

образование

8. mud engineer

8.

заводнение

9. formation

9.

оборудование

10. storage

10. инженер эксплуатационник

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

получать

1. well placement

2.

обезвоживание

2. perforation

3.

рабочий буровой бригады

3. evaluate

4.

расположение скважины

4. drainage problems

5.

проблемы осушения

5. obtain

6.

бурить скважину

6. hydrocarbon recovery

7.

сверление

7. drill well

8.

оценивать

8. responsibility

9.

ответственность

9. mud logger

10. извлечение углеводорода

10. dehydration

Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Petroleum engineers divide themselves into several types.

2.Historically, the chemical engineer has been primarily concerned with process engineering.

3.Considerations must be given to the various functions.

4.Modern chemical engineers are becoming more heavily involved in the development of new technologies.

5.Drilling engineers are in charge of the process of planning and drilling the wells.

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6.Subsurface Engineer will monitor and adjust the equipment to ensure the well.

7.They often are degreed as petroleum engineers, although they may come from other technical disciplines.

8.Subsurface engineers must design a successful well completion system by selecting equipment that is adequate for both downhole environments and applications.

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.Production engineers design and select equipment to extract and treat oil and gas well fluids.

2.Engineering applications are also computer-intensive; they are generally classified as either simulation or process types.

3.They also may have practical experience as a rig hand or mud logger or mud engineer.

4.Drilling engineers are in charge of the process of planning and drilling the wells.

5.Another factor in selection of specific completion equipment is the production rates of the well.

6.They work closely with the drilling contractor, service contractors, and compliance personnel, as well as with geologists and other technical specialists.

7.Environmental engineers also design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems.

8.Drilling engineers design and implement procedures to drill wells as safely and economically as possible.

Упр. 7. Переведите предложения на английский язык:

1.Инженеры-буровики тесно работают с буровыми подрядчиками, с индивидуальными подрядчиками, с персоналом ведомственного контроля, а также с геологами и другими техническими специалистами.

2.Инженеры-промысловики также играют основную роль в планировании разработки месторождения.

3.Инженеры-буровики отвечают за процессы планирования и бурения скважин.

4.Инженеры-эксплуатационники планируют процедуру заканчивания скважины.

5.Инженеры-буровики управляют техническими аспектами бурения разведочных, добывающих и нагнетательных скважин.

6.Инженеры-эксплуатационники проектируют и подбирают оборудование, чтобы извлекать и очищать жидкости нефтяных и газовых скважин.

7.Кроме того, буровики ведут разведку более глубоких залежей.

8.Инженер-промысловик должен широко использовать в своей практике достижения естественных наук, математики, экспериментальной физики и химии.

9.Инженер-эксплуатационник отвечает за отладку и техническое обслуживание машин, автоматов, технологических линий, контроль за режимом их работы.

10.Инженеры-нефтяники занимаются поиском месторождений нефти и газа, их разработкой и эксплуатацией, на них также возложена обязанность по восстановлению территории после завершения буровых работ.

Упр. 8. Письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, пользуясь словарем:

1. Subsurface engineers (also known as Completion engineers) are a subset within petroleum engineering and typically work closely with drilling engineers.

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2.The job of a subsurface engineer is to effectively select equipment that will best suit the subsurface environment in order to best produce the hydrocarbon reserves.

3.Once the hardware has been selected, a subsurface engineer will monitor and adjust the equipment to ensure the well and reservoir produces under ideal circumstances.

4.Subsurface engineers must design a successful well completion system by selecting equipment that is adequate for both downhole environments and applications.

5.In general, a chemical engineer is one who applies and uses principles of chemical engineering in any of various practical applications; primarily with respect to the study of the design, manufacture, and operation of plant and machinery in industrial chemical and related processes.

6.Chemical engineers are now engaged in the development and production of a diverse range of products, as well as in commodity and specialty chemicals.

7.The geological engineer, using the petrophysical data, the seismic surveys conducted during the exploration operations, and an analysis of the regional and environmental geology, develops inferences concerning the lateral continuity and extent of the reservoir.

8.Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate the significance of such hazards, advice on treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps.

9.Environmental engineers also design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems as well as address local and worldwide environmental issues such as the effects of acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial sources.

10.Environmental "civil" engineers focus on hydrology, water resources management, bioremediation, and water treatment plant design.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на вопросы.

1.What types do petroleum engineers divide themselves?

2.What do reservoir engineers do?

3.What are the working tools of the reservoir engineers?

4.How do the drilling engineers work?

5.Are drilling engineers in charge of the process of planning and drilling the wells?

6.What does the production engineer manage?

7.Who plans the completion procedure for the well?

8.How are the production engineers often degreed?

9.Who do the drilling engineers closely work with?

10.What practical experience may they also have?

Упр. 10. Расскажите, что нового вы узнали из текста. Используйте следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say a few words about; it’s important to say that; it should be noted that; as a matter of fact; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion; according to the text; I can add; the subject of the text is; I’d like to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; the text is about; the text deals with; the content of the text.

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Урок 4.

Тема: Нефть: образование и состав.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Petroleum: formation and composition”.

Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, inflammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials.

In its strictest sense, petroleum includes only crude oil, but in common usage it includes all liquid, gaseous, and solid (e.g., paraffin) hydrocarbons. Under surface pressure and temperature conditions, lighter hydrocarbons methane, ethane, propane and butane occur as gases, while pentane and heavier ones are in the form of liquids or solids. However, in an underground oil reservoir the proportions of gas, liquid, and solid depend on subsurface conditions and on the phase diagram of the petroleum mixture.

An oil well produces predominantly crude oil, with some natural gas dissolved in it. Because the pressure is lower at the surface than underground, some of the gas will come out of solution and be recovered (or burned) as associated gas or solution gas. A gas well produces predominantly natural gas. However, because the underground temperature and pressure are higher than at the surface, the gas may contain heavier hydrocarbons such as pentane, hexane, and heptan in the gaseous state. At surface conditions these will condense out of the gas to form natural gas condensate, often shortened to condensate. Condensate resembles petrol in appearance and is similar in composition to some volatile light crude oils.

The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium.

Crude oil varies greatly in appearance depending on its composition. It is usually black or dark brown (although it may be yellowish, reddish, or even greenish). In the reservoir it is usually found in association with natural gas.

Petroleum is a fossil fuel derived from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae. Vast quantities of these remains settled to a sea or lake bottoms, mixing with sediments and being buried under anoxic conditions. As further layers settled to the sea or lake bed, intense heat and pressure built up in the lower regions. This process caused the organic matter to change, first into a waxy material known as kerogen, which is found in various oil shales around the world, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons via a process known as catagenesis. Formation of petroleum occurs from hydrocarbon pyrolysis in a variety of mainly endothermic reactions at high temperature and/or pressure.

Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and petrol, both important "primary energy" sources. 84% by volume of the hydrocarbons present in petroleum is converted into energy-rich fuels (petroleum-based fuels), including petrol, diesel, jet, heating, and other fuel oils, and liquefied petroleum gas.

Due to its high energy density, easy transportability and relative abundance, oil has become the world's most important source of energy. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics.

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Слова к тексту.

inflammable – горючий, огнеопасный porosity – пористость, скважинность boiling – кипение, кипячение

occur – встречаться, находиться solid – твёрдый

predominant – преобладающий, доминирующий dissolve – растворять, разжигать

solution gas – растворенный в нефти газ condense – конденсировать, сжижать, resemble – подходить, иметь сходство appearance – вид

volatile – летучий, быстро испаряющийся fossil – ископаемое, окаменелость zooplankton – зоопланктон

algae – морская водоросль

sediments – осадочные отложения, наносы

anoxic conditions – бескислородные условия, условия кислородного голодания wax – парафин, твердые углеводороды

kerogen – кероген (органическое вещество битуминозных сланцев) oil shale – нефтяной сланец

catagenesis – катагенез via – через

endothermic – эндотермический, теплопоглощающий

thermal cracking - термический крекинг, термическое растрескивание, образование горячих трещин, образование трещин при перегреве

shallower level – мелкий, поверхностный

reservoir – коллектор, нефтеносный или газоносный пласт, резервуар, хранилище

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

сырая нефть, жидкость, смесь углеводородов, вес, органическое соединение, очищать, точка кипения, газообразный, давление, твердый, нефтяная скважина, бензин, изменяться, нефтяное месторождение, азот, железо, молекулярный состав, образование, жидкое топливо, сжиженный нефтяной газ, углерод, сырье, нефтяной сланец, источник энергии, нефтеперерабатывающий завод, слой, лекарственные средства, растворитель.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания:

complex mixture of hydrocarbons various molecular weights

liquid organic compounds

pressure and temperature conditions volatile light crude oils

proportion of chemical elements important "primary energy" sources complex and expensive methods fossilized organic materials

raw material for many chemical products

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Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1. inflammable

1.

бурение нефти

2. geological formation

2.

растворимый

3. oil drilling

3.

ароматические углеводороды

4. depend on

4.

нефтеносный пласт

5. dissolved

5.

морское дно

6. aromatic hydrocarbons

6.

зависеть от

7. copper, sulfur, oxygen

7.

органическое топливо

8. reservoir

8.

горючий

9. sea bottom

9.

медь, сера, кислород

10. fossil fuel

10. геологическое образование

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

тяжелая сырая нефть

1. consumer products

2.

легкие углеводороды

2. manufacturing

3.

включать

3. include

4.

газообразные углеводороды

4. surface

5.

давление

5. gas well

6.

газовая скважина

6. light hydrocarbons

7.

поверхность

7. pressure

8.

потребительские продукты

8. heavy oil

9.

производство

9. sediments

10. осадочные отложения

10. gaseous hydrocarbons

Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling.

2.An oil well produces predominantly crude oil.

3.Some of the gas will come out of solution and be recovered (or burned) as associated gas or solution gas.

4.The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons.

5.Crude oil may also be found in semi-solid form mixed with sand and water.

6.Oil has become the world's most important source of energy.

7.Heavy oil is being produced from this well now.

8.Crude oil was produced at this oil field two years ago.

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.Condensate resembles petrol in appearance and is similar in composition to some light crude oils.

2.Well are drilled into oil reservoirs to extract the crude oil.

3.The latter set is regularly used in petrochemical plants and oil refineries.

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4.Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials.

5.Crude oil varies greatly in appearance depending on its composition.

6.The natural pressure in many reservoirs, however, eventually dissipates.

7.Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form.

8.In some reservoirs the natural pressure is sufficient over a long time.

Упр. 7. Переведите предложения на английский язык:

1.Нефть – это горючая жидкость, состоящая из сложной смеси углеводородов различных молекулярных весов и других жидких органических соединений.

2.Нефть добывают главным образом путём бурения.

3.Нефть используют в производстве различных материалов.

4.Нефть и горючий газ встречаются в земных недрах как вместе, так и раздельно.

5.Углеводороды в сырой нефти являются главным образом алканами, циклоалканами и различными ароматическими углеводородами, в то время как другие органические соединения содержат азот, кислород и серу, а также незначительное количество металлов, таких как железо, никель, медь и ванадий.

6.Нефть относится к группе осадочных пород вместе с песками, глинами, известняками, каменной солью и др.

7.Различные компоненты нефти переходят в газообразное состояние при различной температуре.

8.Нефть также является сырьём для многих химических продуктов, включая лекарственные средства, растворители, удобрения, пестициды, пластмассы.

9.Нефтяники считают, что добыча нефти зависит от пластового давления.

10.Нефть останется в ближайшем будущем основой обеспечения энергией народного хозяйства и сырьем нефтехимической промышленности.

Упр. 8. Пользуясь словарем, письменно переведите следующие предложения:

1.Three conditions must be present for oil reservoirs to form: a source rock rich in hydrocarbon material buried deep enough for subterranean heat to cook it into oil; a porous and permeable reservoir rock for it to accumulate in; and a cap rock (seal) or other mechanism that prevents it from escaping to the surface.

2.Within these reservoirs, fluids will typically organize themselves like a three-layer cake with a layer of water below the oil layer and a layer of gas above it, although the different layers vary in size between reservoirs.

3.Because most hydrocarbons are lighter than rock or water, they often migrate upward through adjacent rock layers until either reaching the surface or becoming trapped within porous rocks (known as reservoirs) by impermeable rocks above.

4.However, the process is influenced by underground water flows, causing oil to migrate hundreds of kilometres horizontally or even short distances downward before becoming trapped in a reservoir.

5.When hydrocarbons are concentrated in a trap, an oil field forms, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping.

6.The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions, where hydrocarbons are broken down to oil and natural gas by a set of parallel reactions, and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions.

7.The latter set is regularly used in petrochemical plants and oil refineries.

8.The present Russian classification of crude oil and natural gas resources by criteria of exploration and validity has been using since 1983.

9.Another important point in classifying petroleum for sale is the amount of impurities in the oil and gas.

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10. The hydrogen and carbon materials which make up the composition of petroleum are considered to come from the decompressed plants and animals that were living on land and in the sea.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1.What is petroleum?

2.How is petroleum recovered?

3.Is petroleum used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials?

4.What does petroleum include?

5.What are the hydrocarbons in crude oil?

6.Crude oil varies greatly in appearance depending on its composition, does not it?

7.Where is crude oil usually found?

8.Where is petroleum used as a raw material?

9.Where is petroleum derived from?

10.Why has oil become the world’s most important source of energy?

Упр. 10. Передайте содержание текста на английском языке, используя следующие разговорные формулы:

The subject of the text is; the text deals with; it should be noted that; according to the text; I can add; I’d like to say that; as a matter of fact; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion; it’s important to say that; I’d like to say some words about; it should be pointed; as is known; the text is about; the content of the text.

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Урок 5.

Тема: Нефтепродукты.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Petroleum products”.

Petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. According to crude oil composition and demand, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products. The largest share of oil products is used as energy carriers: various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. These energy-carrying fuels include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier fuel oils. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since petroleum often contains a couple of percent sulfur, sulfur is also often produced as a petroleum product. Hydrogen and carbon in the form of petroleum coke may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrogen catalytic cracking (hydrocracking) and hydrodesulfurization.

Oil refineries will blend various feedstocks, mix appropriate additives, provide short term storage, and prepare for bulk loading to trucks, barges, product ships, and railcars. Gaseous fuels, such as propane, are stored and shipped in liquid form under pressure in specialized railcars to distributors. Liquid fuels blending (producing automotive and aviation grades of gasoline, kerosene, various aviation turbine fuels, and diesel fuels, adding dyes, detergents, antiknock additives, oxygenates, and anti-fungal compounds as required) are shipped by barge, rail, and tanker ship. It also may be shipped regionally in dedicated pipelines to point consumers, particularly aviation jet fuel to major airports, or piped to distributors in multi-product pipelines using product separators called pipeline inspection gauges ("pigs").

Lubricants (produces light machine oils, motor oils, and greases, adding viscosity stabilizers as required), are usually shipped in bulk to an offsite packaging plant. Wax (paraffin), are used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others. It may be shipped in bulk to a site to prepare as packaged blocks. Sulfur (or sulfuric acid), byproducts of sulfur removal from petroleum may have up to a couple percent sulfur as organic sulfur-containing compounds. Sulfur and sulfuric acid are useful industrial materials. Sulfuric acid is usually prepared and shipped as the acid precursor oleum. Bulk tar is shipped for offsite unit packaging for use in tar-and-gravel roofing or similar uses. Asphalt is used as a binder for gravel to form asphalt concrete, which is used for paving roads, lots, etc. An asphalt unit prepares bulk asphalt for shipment. Petroleum coke is used in specialty carbon products such as certain types of electrodes, or as solid fuel.

Petrochemicals or petrochemical feedstocks are often sent to petrochemical plants for further processing in a variety of ways. The petrochemicals may be olefins or their precursors, or various types of aromatic petrochemicals. Petrochemicals have a vast variety of uses. They are commonly used as monomers or feedstocks for monomer production. Olefins such as alphaolefins and dienes are often used as monomers, although aromatics can also be used as monomer precursors. The monomers are then polymerized in various ways to form polymers. Polymer materials can be used as plastics, elastomers, or fibers, or possibly some intermediate form of these material types. Some polymers are also used as gels or lubricants. Petrochemicals can also be used as solvents or as feedstock for producing solvents. Petrochemicals can also be used as precursors for a wide variety of chemicals and substances such as vehicle fluids, surfactants for cleaners, etc.

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Слова к тексту.

demand – спрос share – часть, доля

energy carrier – энергоноситель blend –смешивать

jet – струя (воды, пара, газа) heating oil – топочный мазут tar – смола, деготь, битум

intermediate product – полуфабрикат

hydrodesulfurization – гидродесульфурация, сероочистка в присутствии водорода desulfurization – удаление серы, обессеривание

feedstock – исходный продукт

truck – товарный вагон, грузовой автомобиль rail car – железнодорожный вагон

dye – краситель, краска

detergent – дезинфицирующее вещество, моющее средство antiknock – антидетонационное средство

additive – компонент, присадка, добавка oxygenate – окислитель

anti-fungal compounds – противогрибковые смеси gauge – средство измерений, контрольный прибор grease – густая смазка, солидол

gravel – гравий, крупный песок petroleum coke – нефтяной кокс olefins – олефиновые углеводороды precursor – предшествующий продукт

diene – диен, диолефин, алифатический углеводород с двумя двойными связями monomer – мономер, простое соединение

elastomer – эластомер fiber – волокно, клетчатка

surfactant – поверхностно-активное вещество cleaner – очиститель

bulk additive –наполнитель, сухая добавка

fuel oil – котельное топливо, жидкое топливо, мазут volatile oils – эфирные масла

oil tar – деготь

loading – нагрузка, груз, погрузка, загрузка vehicle – средство передвижения

pig – скребок для чистки труб

oleum – олеум, дымящая серная кислота ship – грузить, перевозить; судно

oil ship – танкер

shipment – погрузка, отправка партии грузов

in bulk – наливом (о транспорте нефтепродуктов)

hydrocracking – гидрокрекинг, крекинг под давлением кислорода

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Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

перерабатывать, состав нефти, энергоноситель, котельное топливо, дизельное топливо, использовать, смола, смазочное масло, сера, нефтяной кокс, производить, добавка, железнодорожный вагон, трубопровод, потребитель, моторное масло, побочный продукт, серная кислота, погрузка, исходный продукт, очиститель, сырьё, водород, бензин, вещество, трубопровод.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания:

according to crude oil composition different shares of petroleum products some chemical processes

provide short term storage packaging of frozen food byproducts of sulfur removal

organic sulfur-containing compounds useful industrial materials feedstocks for monomer production certain types of electrodes

Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.demand

1.

смазочные вещества

2. oil products

2.

химические процессы

3. gasoline

3.

смешивать

4. heating oil

4.

углеродный продукт

5. chemical processes

5.

газообразное топливо

6. blend

6.

нефтяные продукты

7. gaseous fuel

7.

очиститель

8. lubricants

8.

топочный мазут

9. carbon product

9.

бензин

10. cleaner

10. спрос

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

нефтехимический завод

1. various grades

2.

растворитель

2. heavy oil

3.

тяжелая нефть

3. petroleum products

4.

окислитель

4. liquid form

5.

олефиновые углеводороды

5. pressure

6.

жидкая форма

6. oxygenate

7.

давление

7. solid fuel

8.

нефтяной продукт

8. petrochemical plant

9.

твердое топливо

9. olefins

10. различные марки

10. solvent

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Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil.

2.Refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products.

3.The largest share of oil products is used as energy carriers.

4.Hydrogen and carbon in the form of petroleum coke may also be produced as petroleum products.

5.Oil refineries will blend various feedstocks.

6.Petrochemicals have a vast variety of uses.

7.Petrochemicals can also be used as solvents or as feedstock for producing solvents.

8.The petrochemicals may be olefins or their precursors, or various types of aromatic petrochemicals.

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.Since petroleum often contains a couple off percent sulfur, sulfur is often produced as a petroleum products.

2.The production, distribution, refining and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represents the world’s largest industry in terms of dollar value.

3.Sulfuric acid is usually prepared and shipped as the acid precursor oleum.

4.The monomers are then polymerized in various ways to form polymers.

5.The relative permeability of the oil phase is a function of the saturations of both gas water phases.

6.These oil sands resources are called unconventional oil to distinguish them from oil which can be extracted using traditional oil well methods.

7.Gaseous fuels, such as propane, are stored and shipped in liquid form under pressure in specialized railcars to distributors.

8.Polymers are never used as gels or lubricants.

Упр. 7. Определите значение выделенных слов, по сходству их корней с корнями соответствующих слов в русском языке:

natural gas, petroleum products, chemical processes, gaseous fuel, energy carries, aviation turbine, the different categories of solid fuels, the basis of practically all natural fuels, the small amount of other elements, to produce asphalt and paraffin, light machine oil, motor oil, useful industrial materials, certain types of electrodes, aromatic petrochemicals, polymer material, can be used as plastics.

Упр. 8. Переведите предложения на английский язык:

1.Нефтеперерабатывающие заводы могут производить различные виды нефтепродуктов.

2.Большая часть нефтепродуктов используется как энергоносители: различные марки жидкого топлива и бензина.

3.Нефтепродукты – смеси углеводородов, а также индивидуальные химические соединения, получаемые из нефти и нефтяных газов.

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4.К нефтепродуктам относятся различные виды топлива (бензин, дизельное топливо, керосин и др.), смазочные материалы, электроизоляционные среды, растворители, нефтехимическое сырьё.

5.Нефтепродукты получаются в результате химического процесса — перегонки нефти, от которой при разных температурах отделяются вещества (отгоны) в парообразном состоянии.

6.Основное количество нефтяных топлив составляет моторное топливо, применяемое в двигателях внутреннего сгорания.

7.Некоторые полимеры используются как гели или смазочные вещества.

8.Сера и серная кислота являются полезными промышленными веществами.

9.Парафин используется в упаковке замороженных продуктов.

10.Нефтепродукты, получаемые путём разделения фракций пиролиза нефти (бензол, толуол, ксилол, нафталин, зелёное масло и др.), применяются в основном как нефтехимическое сырьё.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы, опираясь на текст.

1.What are petroleum products?

2.What can refineries produce from crude oil?

3.What shares of petroleum products do you know?

4.What is often used as an intermediate product?

5.Have petrochemicals a vast variety of uses?

6.They are common by used as monomers, are not they?

7.How can polymer materials be used?

8.Where are lubricants used?

9.Are sulfur and sulfuric acid useful industrial materials?

10.Where is petroleum coke used?

Упр. 10. Расскажите, что нового вы узнали из текста. Используйте следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say a few words about; it should be noted; as a matter of fact; it’s important to say; the subject of the text is; the text deals with; according to the text; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion; I’d like to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; the text is about; the content of the text.

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Урок 6.

Тема: Трубопроводный транспорт.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Pipeline transport”.

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly, liquids and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using compressed air are also used. As for gases and liquids, any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Therefore sewage, slurry, water, or even beer pipelines exist; but arguably the most valuable are those transporting fuels: oil, natural gas, and biofuels. Dmitri Mendeleev first suggested using a pipe for transporting petroleum in 1863. Pipelines are generally the most economical way to transport large quantities of oil, refined oil products or natural gas over land. Compared to shipping by railroad, they have lower cost per unit and higher capacity. Although pipelines can be built under the sea, that process is economically and technically demanding, so the majority of oil at sea is transported by tanker ships.

Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes. Multi-product pipelines are used to transport two or more different products in sequence in the same pipeline. Usually in multiproduct pipelines there is no physical separation between the different products. Some mixing of adjacent products occurs, producing interface. At the receiving facilities this interface is usually absorbed in one of the product based on pre-calculated absorption rates.

Crude oil contains varying amounts of wax, or paraffin, and in colder climates wax buildup may occur within a pipeline. Often these pipelines are inspected and cleaned using pipeline inspection gauges, pigs, also known as scrapers or Go-devils. Smart pigs (also known as intelligent or intelligence pigs) are used to detect anomalies in the pipe such as dents, metal loss caused by corrosion, cracking or other mechanical damage. These devices are launched from pig-launcher stations and travel through the pipeline to be received at any other station downstream, either cleaning wax deposits and material that may have accumulated inside the line or inspecting and recording the condition of the line. For natural gas, pipelines are constructed of carbon steel. The gas is pressurized by compressor stations and is odorless unless mixed with a mercaptan odorant where required by a regulating authority.

In general, pipelines can be classified in three categories depending on purpose: gathering pipelines, transportation pipelines, distribution pipelines. Gathering pipelines are the group of smaller interconnected pipelines forming complex networks with the purpose of bringing crude oil or natural gas from several nearby wells to a treatment plant or processing facility. In this group, pipelines are usually short (a couple of hundred metres) and with small diameters. Also sub-sea pipelines for collecting product from deep water production platforms are considered gathering systems. Transportation pipelines are mainly long pipes with large diameters, moving products (oil, gas, refined products) between cities, countries and even continents. These transportation networks include several compressor stations in gas lines or pump stations for crude and multi-products pipelines. Distribution pipelines are composed of several interconnected pipelines with small diameters, used to take the products to the final consumer. Feeder lines to distribute gas to homes and businesses downstream and pipelines at terminals for distributing products to tanks and storage facilities are included in this group.

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Слова к тексту.

pneumatic tubes – пневматическая труба sewage – сточные воды

slurry – грязь, шлам, жидкий цементный раствор arguably – бесспорно

wrought iron – сварочное железо, кованный steel – сталь

pump station – насосная станция flow – течь, вливаться, литься speed – скорость

sequence – последовательность, порядок (следования) adjacent – смежный, примыкающий, соседний

interface – поверхность раздела (двух фаз или слоёв жидкости) absorb – поглощать, абсорбировать

absorption rate – скорость поглощения

buildup – нарастание, накопление, образование scraper - скребок, ёрш

go-devil – скребок для чистки нефтяных трубопроводов smart – резкий, сильный, быстрый

detect – обнаруживать, открывать dents – вмятины, царапины

loss – ущерб, убыток, потеря launch – начинать, пускать в ход

pressurized – герметический, под давлением odorless – без запаха, лишенный запаха odorant – добавка, придающая запах; одорант interconnected – взаимосвязанный

treatment – обработка, очистка

feeder line – соединительный трубопровод innerвнутренний

pig – скребок для очистки труб

downstream station – станция, следующая по направлению потока gathering pipelines – межпромысловые трубопроводы

distribution pipelines – распределительные трубопроводы

intelligent pig – исследовательский поршень, диагностическое и очистное устройство pig launcher station – площадка запуска поршня

wax deposit – парафиновые отложения line – трубопровод

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

пневматическая труба, трубопроводный транспорт, ценный, сырая нефть, нефтяное месторождение, природный газ, стальные трубы, глубина, поглощать, вмятины, механические повреждения, приборы, условие, компрессорные станции, цель, сеть, скважина, потребитель, товары, строить, железная дорога, очищенный нефтяной продукт, скребок, соединительный трубопровод, лишенный запаха, средства хранения, скорость поглощения.

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Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык следующие группы слов:

transportation of goods through a pipe chemically stable substance

large quantities of oil shipping by railroad

can be sent through a pipeline some mixing of adjacent products pipeline inspection gauges

detect anomalies in the pipe forming complex networks long pipes with large diameters

Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1. pipeline

1.

насосная станция

2. liquid

2.

сообщающийся

3. solid capsule

3.

скребок

4. refined oil products

4.

скорость

5. pump station

5.

углеродная сталь

6. speed

6.

твёрдая капсула

7. scraper

7.

жидкость

8. corrosion

8.

трубопровод

9. carbon steel

9.

коррозия

10. interconnected

10. очищенные нефтепродукты

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

металлические повреждения

1. compressed air

2.

пластиковые трубы

2. sewage

3.

парафиновые наросты

3. economical way

4.

тип трубопровода

4. plastic tubes

5.

сточные воды

5. different products

6.

сжатый воздух

6. physical separation

7.

скорость поглощения

7. absorption rate

8.

разные продукты

8. wax buildup

9.

экономичный способ

9. metal loss

10. физическое разделение

10. type of pipeline

Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.As for gases and liquids, any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline.

2.Mendeleev first suggested using a pipe for transporting petroleum.

3.Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes.

4.Crude oil contains varying amounts of wax.

5.There is some argument as to when the first crude oil pipeline was built.

6.Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe.

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7.Preparation of the pipeline route was started on April 10, 1946 near the Subkhankulovo village.

8.The history of pipeline transport of Russia has gone through main changes.

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.By new economic conditions there is a need for structural reorganization of pipeline enterprises.

2.Some pipelines were built in densely populated and industrial areas.

3.Compared to shipping by railroad, they have lower cost per unit and higher capacity.

4.The development programme pays particular attention to diagnostics of pipelines, tanks, equipment of pump station.

5.In general, pipelines can be classified in three categories depending on purpose.

6.Feeder lines to distribute gas to homes and businesses downstream.

7.Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes with inner diameter typically from 100 to 1,200 mm.

8.Transportation pipelines are mainly short pipes with small diameters.

Упр. 7. Переведите предложения на английский язык:

1.Трубопроводный транспорт - нефтепровод, продуктопровод, газопровод, по которому производится перекачка от одного пункта до другого.

2.В 1863 году русский ученый Дмитрий Иванович Менделеев первым предложил идею использования трубопровода при перекачке нефти и нефтепродуктов.

3.Нефтепроводы изготовляют из стальных или пластиковых труб.

4.Трубопроводы могут быть классифицированы на три категории в зависимости от цели.

5.Промысловые нефтепроводы соединяют скважины с различными объектами и установками подготовки нефти на промыслах.

6.Магистральные трубопроводы предназначены для транспортировки товарной нефти и нефтепродуктов из районов их добычи, производства или хранения до мест потребления.

7.Распределительные трубопроводы, состоящие из нескольких взаимосвязанных трубопроводов с небольшими диаметрами, используются, чтобы доставить продукты к конечному потребителю.

8.Подводный трубопровод - трубопровод, который служат для транспортировки нефти и газа с морских нефтяных месторождений и месторождений, отделенных от потребителя морем.

9.Технологические трубопроводы предназначены для транспортировки в пределах промышленного предприятия или группы этих предприятий различных веществ, необходимых для ведения технологического процесса или эксплуатации оборудования.

10.В России преобладают трубопроводы большого диаметра, проложенные на огромные расстояния.

Упр. 8. Пользуясь словарем, письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1.One of the important parts of the Russian oil and gas industry is the network of pipelines.

2.The system of pipelines is unique as for the length, pipes’ diameter, and volume of transported hydrogensulphidous products in Russia, as well as abroad.

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3.This intelligent pig will be used in the large-diameter pipelines to define metal loss and lateral and transverse fractures.

4.It is considering to use for pipeline monitoring new systems based on computer networks including satellite systems.

5.The pipelines during their service life are under different stress factors which close to the strength properties of metal.

6.Failures of crude trunk pipelines resulting serious ecological damage is a very important problem for environment.

7.The public opinion in Russia and abroad connects failures of crude trunk pipelines with their age.

8.Future development of Russian oil and gas industry will depend on some crucial factors and among them, sufficient foreign investments to oil and gas industry and also in pipeline construction and rehabilitation.

9.The main pipeline transport is major and integral component of fuel and energy complex of Russia.

10.The ramified network main gas, and oil products of wires which pass on territory practically all subjects of Federation is created in the country.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1.What is pipeline transport?

2.What can be sent through a pipeline?

3.Who first suggested using a pipe for transporting petroleum?

4.What types of pipelines do you know?

5.Can pipelines be built under the sea?

6.What are oil pipelines made from?

7.How is oil at sea transported?

8.Where are multi-product pipelines used?

9.What is used to detect anomalies in the pipe?

10.Are pipelines generally the most economical way to transport oil, refined oil products or natural gas over the land?

Упр. 10. Обсудите содержание текста, используя разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say some words about; according to the text; the subject of the text is; the text deals with; it should be noted; as a matter of fact; it’s important to say; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

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Урок 7.

Тема: Природный газ: образование и состав.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Natural gas: formation and composition”.

Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons (primarily ethane). It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers. Most natural gas is created by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo processing to remove almost all materials other than methane. The by-products of that processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulfur, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is often informally referred to as simply gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal.

In the 19th century, natural gas was usually obtained as a byproduct of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a bottle of soda pop where the carbon dioxide effervesces. Unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was virtually valueless since it had to be piped to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, such unwanted gas usually was burned off in the oil fields. Today, unwanted gas (or 'stranded' gas without a market) associated with oil extraction often is returned to the reservoir with 'injection' wells while awaiting a possible future market or to repressurize the formation, which can enhance extraction rates from other wells. Another solution is to export the natural gas as a liquid. Gas-to-liquids (GTL) is a developing technology that converts stranded natural gas into synthetic gasoline, diesel or jet fuel through the Fischer-Tropsch process developed in World War II Germany. Such fuel can be transported to users through conventional pipelines and tankers. Proponents claim GTL burns cleaner than comparable petroleum fuels.

Natural gas can be "associated" (found in oil fields) or "non-associated" (isolated in natural gas fields), and is also found in coal beds (as coalbed methane). It sometimes contains significant amounts of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane – heavier hydrocarbons removed for commercial use prior to the methane being sold as a consumer fuel or chemical plant feedstock. Non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium (rarely), and hydrogen sulfide must be removed also before the natural gas can be transported. Natural gas is commercially extracted from oil fields and natural gas fields. Gas extracted from oil wells is called casinghead gas or associated gas. The natural gas industry is extracting gas from increasingly more challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane.

Because natural gas is not a pure product, as the reservoir pressure drops when non-associated gas is extracted from a field under supercritical (pressure/temperature) conditions, the higher molecular weight components may partially condense upon isothermic depressurizing—an effect called retrograde condensation. The liquid thus formed may get trapped as the pores of the gas reservoir get deposited. One method to deal with this problem is to re-inject dried gas free of condensate to maintain the underground pressure and to allow re-evaporation and extraction of condensates. More frequently, the liquid condenses at the surface, and this is one of the uses of the gas plant to collect this condensate. The resulting liquid is called natural gas liquid (NGL) and has a good commercial value.

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Слова к тексту.

coalbed – угольный пласт

clathrates – порода, состоящая из молекул двух веществ, вкраплённых в кристаллическую решетку друг друга; клатрат

biogenic – биогенный, органический thermogenic – термогенный

methanogenic – метаногенный, метанообразующий marsh – болото, топь

bogs – трясина

landfills – полигон для захоронения отходов, земляные насыпи shallow sediments – мелкие осадки

water vapor – водяной пар

carbon dioxide – углекислый газ, углекислота

carbon chains – углеродная цепь (органического соединения) undergo – подвергаться

reduction – понижение, уменьшение uncapping – открывать, откупоривать pop – щелчок

effervesce – бурно выделять газ unwanted – лишний, ненужный wellhead – источник

injection well – нагнетательная скважина prior – прежний, предшествующий casinghead gas – нефтяной попутный газ associated gas – попутный газ

challenging resource – перспективные ресурсы sour gas – высокосернистый (сухой) нефтяной газ

tight gas – плотный газ (непроницаемый), газ в плотных породах shale gas – сланцевый газ

pressure drop – перепад давления, падение давления

isothermic – изотемический, проходящий при постоянной температуре depressurize – сбрасывать давление

retrograde – ухудшаться; ухудшающий re-inject – обратно закачивать

dried gas – высушенный газ re-evaporation – повторное испарение gas-free – дегазированный

injected gas – газ, нагнетаемый в пласт town gas – коммунальный газ

condense – конденсировать, сжижать, уплотнять market – сбыт, рынок

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

природный газ, углеводороды, угольный пласт, давление, переработка, извлекать, органический материал, побочные продукты, молекулярный вес, углекислый газ, азот, получать, газоносный пласт, поверхность, нагнетательная скважина, трубопровод, дизельное топливо, сероводород, попутный газ, высокосернистый нефтяной газ, потребитель, мелкие осадки, плотный газ, дегазированный, коммунальный газ, газзавод, коммерческая ценность.

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Упр. 2. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания:

important fuel source

major feedstock for fertilizers light gas carbon chains significant amounts of ethane possible future market

high natural gas demand export the natural gas

can be transported to users gas extracted from oil wells good commercial value

Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1. hydrocarbon fuel

1.

химический завод

2. biogenic gas

2.

сера

3. sulfur

3.

уменьшение давления

4. solution

4.

углеводородное топливо

5. pressure reduction

5.

органический газ

6. gas demand

6.

раствор

7. gasoline

7.

газовое месторождение

8. chemical plant

8.

чистый продукт

9. gas field

9.

бензин

10. pure product

10. спрос на газ

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

развивающая технология

1. water vapor

2.

углеродные цепи

2. energy source

3.

потребительское топливо

3. fluid

4.

энергетический источник

4. unwanted gas

5.

водяной пар

5. developing technology

6.

ненужный газ

6. contain

7.

плотный газ

7. consumer fuel

8.

сбыт

8. tight gas

9.

содержать

9. carbon chains

10. жидкость

10. market

Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane.

2.Most natural gas is created by two mechanisms.

3.Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo processing.

4.Natural gas was usually obtained as a byproduct of producing oil.

5.Another solution is to export the natural gas as liquid.

6.Natural gas liquid has a good commercial value.

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7.Natural gas, in itself, might be considered an uninteresting gas - it is colorless, shapeless, and odorless in its pure form

8.New technologies are allowing this gas to be harvested and used to add to the supply of natural gas.

Упр. 6. Определите значение выделенных слов по сходству их корней с корнями соответствующих слов в русском языке:

natural gas, gas consisting of methane, organic materials, energy sources, bottle of soda pop, disposal problem, active oil field, formation of gas field, developing technology, synthetic gasoline, amounts of ethane, propane, butane and pentane, can be transported, pure product, supercritical conditions, elemental sulfur.

Упр. 7. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.In the 19th century and early 20th century, such unwanted gas usually was burned off in the oil fields.

2.Town gas is a synthetically produced mixture of methane and other gases.

3.However, depending upon infrastructure considerations, it remains a future possibility.

4.Natural gas is commercially extracted from oil fields and natural gas fields.

5.The liquid thus formed may get trapped as the pores of the gas reservoir get deposited.

6.The world’s largest proven gas reserves are located in Russia.

7.The gas driven off from the coal was collected and distributed through town-wide networks of pipes.

8.The resulting liquid is called natural gas liquid (NGL).

Упр. 8. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. Природный газ - одно из важнейших горючих ископаемых , занимающие ключевые позиции в топливно-энергетических балансах многих государств , важное сырьё для химической промышленности.

2.Основу природного газа составляет метан – простейший углеводород (органическое соединение, состоящее из атомов углерода и водорода).

3.Природный газ может существовать в виде газовых залежей, находящихся в пластах некоторых горных пород, в виде газовых шапок (над нефтью), а также в растворенном или кристаллическом виде.

4.Природный газ содержит и более тяжёлые углеводороды – этан, пропан, бутан, а также меркаптаны и сероводород, азот и углекислый газ, пары воды, полезные примеси гелия и других инертных газов.

5.Газ, добываемый из нефтяных скважин, называется попутным газом.

6.Чистый природный газ не имеет цвета и запаха.

7.Природный газ является полезным ископаемым, которое добывается, как самостоятельно, так и в качестве попутного газа при добыче нефти.

8.Газ является самым экономичным и удобным типом топлива.

9.Газ, так же как нефть и уголь, образовался в земных недрах из органических веществ животного происхождения под действием высоких давлений и температур.

10.Природный газ не содержит свободного водорода, монооксида углерода, кислорода, олефинов или ацетилена, хотя во многих залежах имеются диоксид углерода (углекислый газ), азот и сероводород.

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Упр. 9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1.What is natural gas?

2.Where is it found?

3.Why must gas undergo processing?

4.How was natural gas obtained in the 19th century?

5.Unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields, wasn’t it?

6.What must be removed before the natural gas can be transported?

7.Is natural gas a pure product?

8.What is called associated gas?

9.Natural gas liquid has a good commercial value, has not it?

10.What does natural gas contain?

Упр. 10. Расскажите, что нового вы узнали о природном газе. Используйте следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say some words about; it’s important to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; according to the text; the subject of the text is; the text deals with; it should be noted; as a matter of fact; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

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Урок 8.

Тема: Переработка природного газа.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Natural gas processing”.

Raw natural gas comes primarily from any one of three types of wells: crude oil wells, gas wells, and condensate wells. Natural gas that comes from crude oil wells is typically termed associated gas. This gas can have existed as a gas cap above the crude oil in the underground formation, or could have been dissolved in the crude oil. Natural gas from gas wells and from condensate wells, in which there is little or no crude oil, is termed non-associated gas. Gas wells typically produce only raw natural gas, while condensate wells produce raw natural gas along with other low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Those that are liquid at ambient conditions (i.e., pentane and heavier) are called natural gas condensate (sometimes also called natural gasoline or simply condensate). Natural gas is termed sweet gas when relatively free of hydrogen sulfide; however, some produced gas does contain this substance and thus is called sour gas. Raw natural gas can also come from methane deposits in the pores of coal seams, and especially in a more concentrated state of adsorption onto the surface of the coal itself. Such gas is referred to as coalbed gas or coalbed methane. Coalbed gas is a form of natural gas that is has being extracted from coalbed. This coalbed gas has become an important source of energy in recent decades.

Natural-gas processing is a complex industrial process designed to clean raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas. Natural-gas processing begins at the well head. The composition of the raw natural gas extracted from producing wells depends on the type, depth, and location of the underground deposit and the geology of the area. Oil and natural gas are often found together in the same reservoir. The natural gas produced from oil wells is generally classified as associated-dissolved, meaning that the natural gas is associated with or dissolved in crude oil. Natural gas production absent any association with crude oil is classified as “nonassociated.”

Most natural-gas production contains, to varying degrees, small (two to eight carbons) hydrocarbon (any class of compound containing only hydrogen and carbon; examples are methane gas, benzene) molecules in addition to methane. Although they exist in a liquid state at underground pressures, these molecules will become gaseous at normal atmospheric pressure. Collectively, they are called condensates or natural gas liquids (NGLs). The natural gas extracted from coal reservoirs and mines (coalbed methane) is the primary exception, being essentially a mix of mostly methane and carbon dioxide (about 10 percent).

Natural-gas processing plants, (or whatever apparatus capable of separating liquid substance into component parts) are used to purify the raw natural gas produced from underground gas fields or extracted at the surface from the fluids produced from oil wells. A fully operational plant will deliver pipeline-quality natural gas that can be used as fuel by residential, commercial and industrial consumers. Contaminants have been removed and heavier hydrocarbons have been captured for other commercial uses. For economic reasons, however, some plants may be designed to yield an intermediate product typically containing over 90% pure methane and smaller amounts of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and sometimes ethane. This can be further processed in downstream plants or used as feedstock for chemicals manufacturing.

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Слова к тексту.

raw – сырой

exist – существовать, находиться, быть gas cap – газовая шапка

ambient conditions – окружающие условия, состояние sour gas – высокосернистый нефтяной газ

sweet gas – нейтральный (дезодорированный) газ hydrogen sulfide – сероводород

contain – содержать pores – поры

coal slams – угольный слой coalbed gas – газ угольного пласта

extract – извлекать, откачивать (газ) impurities – примеси

associated – связанный, ассоциированный dissolved gas – растворенный (в нефти) газ exception – исключение

purify – очищать

deliver – доставлять, поставлять, снабжать residential – связанный с местом жительства commercial – торговый, технический contaminant – загрязняющее вещество, примесь capture – улавливать, захватывать, добыть compound – соединение

manufacturing – производство; промышленный yield – производить, выдавать

intermediate product – промежуточный продукт carbon dioxide – углекислый газ

coal reservoir – угольный пласт, резервуар consumer – потребитель

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

сырой природный газ, газовая скважина, попутный газ, образование, окружающие условия, вещество, сероводород, переработка природного газа, сухой газ, состав газа, газоносный пласт, добыча, газообразный, углекислый газ, потребитель, промежуточный продукт, азот, сырьё, поры, извлекать, источник энергии, пластовое давление.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания:

gas wells typically produce

low molecular weight hydrocarbons relatively free of hydrogen sulfide complex industrial process

pipeline quality dry natural gas composition of the raw natural gas

in a liquid state at underground pressure natural gas processing plants residential, commercial consumer smaller amounts of nitrogen

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Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1. oil well

1.

пластовое давление

2. gas cap

2.

газопереработка

3. deliver

3.

глубина

4. molecular weight

4.

водород

5. sour gas

5.

нефтяная скважина

6. gas processing

6.

молекулярный вес

7. depth

7.

газовая шапка

8. contaminant

8.

загрязняющее вещество

9. hydrogen

9.

доставлять

10. underground pressure

10. высокосернистый нефтяной газ

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

экономическая причина

1. sweet gas

2.

чистый метан

2. gas condensate well

3.

нейтральный газ

3. coal reservoir

4.

жидкое состояние

4. hydrocarbons

5.

угольный пласт

5. extract

6.

очищать

6. liquid state

7.

углеводороды

7. exception

8.

газоконденсатная скважина

8. purify

9.

извлекать

9. economic reason

10. исключение

10. pure methane

Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Natural-gas processing is a complex industrial process.

2.Natural-gas processing begins at the well head.

3.Oil and natural gas are often found together in the same reservoir.

4.A fully operational plant will deliver pipeline-quality natural gas.

5.Natural gas can be used as a fuel.

6.Contaminants have been removed and heavier hydrocarbons have been captured for other commercial uses.

7.This coalbed gas has become an important source of energy in recent decades.

8.Raw natural gas can also come from methane deposits in the pores of coal seams.

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.Natural gas that comes from crude oil wells is typically termed associated gas.

2.Methane resources discovered in coal seems at existing mines are the most accessible for commercial recovery.

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3.Due to gas shortage, many coal-producing regions of Russia remain beyond the common gas service coverage.

4.Natural gas production absent any association with crude oil is classified as “non-associated”.

5.This can be further processed in downstream plants or used as feedstock for chemicals manufacturing.

6.Propane-based refrigeration cycle and ethane/propane-based cycle are common by used for initial gas cooling.

7.Natural gas from a major gasline is used as a regeneration gas.

8.Collectively, they are called condensates or natural gas liquids.

Упр. 7. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1.Сырой природный газ появляется обычно из любой из трёх типов скважин: нефтяных скважин, газовых скважин и конденсатных скважин.

2.Природный газ, который появляется из нефтяной скважины, обычно относят к попутному газу.

3.Природный газ, относительно свободный от сероводорода называется нейтральным газом.

4.Переработка природного газа – совокупность технологических процессов физического, физико-химического и химического преобразования природного газа в продукты переработки.

5.Первичная переработка природного газа направлена на удаление из него примесей и придания ему качества, необходимого для последующего безопасного хранения, транспортирования и использования, и выделение компонентов и фракций.

6.Некоторые заводы предназначены для того, чтобы производить промежуточный продукт, обычно содержащий более 90% чистого метана и небольшое количество азота, углекислого газа и иногда этана.

7.Переработка природного газа начинается у главной скважины.

8.Состав сырого природного газа, откачанного из добывающих скважин, зависит от типа, глубины и расположения подземного месторождения и геологии поверхности.

9.Если в газе есть соединения серы, то его нужно как можно полнее освободить от них, так как сероводород и меркаптаны вызывают интенсивную коррозию трубопроводов.

10.Для очистки природного газа от сероводорода наиболее широко применяют процесс Клауса, который позволяет не только избавиться от сероводорода, но и получить серу – сырье для производства серной кислоты.

Упр. 8. Пользуясь словарем, письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык.

1.Produced hydrocarbon liquids usually contain sulphur in the form of hydrogen sulphide and organo-sulphuric components.

2.The chemical industry consumes sulphur mostly for sulphuric acid production, as well as carbon disulphide, sulphuros anhydride, pulping sulphites, sulphur dichliride and tetrachloride, and other chemicals used in colorants, high explosives and luminescent materials production.

3.Elementary sulphur as well as sulphur-based preparations and solutions are widely used as fitocides, e.g. in gapes and cotton growing.

4.Hydrogen sulphide is a highly toxic and corrosive medium, which couldharm living organisms and cause damage to underwater gas pipelines, anchors, sunk ships, etc..

5.Reservoir fluids produced in gas condensate and oil fields typically comprise multi-phase and multi-component mixtures.

6.These natural gas and condensate flows contain a number of components which hamper their subsequent transportation.

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7.Natural gas from a major gasline is used as a regeneration gas.

8.Stagnation of the elementary sulphur market calls for finding new applications of elementary sulphur produced from hydrogen-sulphide and organo-sulphuric components obtained from natural gas and hydrocarbon liquids.

9.Natural gas processing and cycling plants recover salable liquids from gaseous streams produced directly from gas wells or from normal oil and gas separation equipment on oil well.

10.Such plants vary greatly in size and capacity, from several million to several hundred million cubic feet of gas per day.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1.Where does raw natural gas come from?

2.What is termed sweet gas?

3.What is natural-gas processing?

4.Where does natural-gas processing begin at?

5.Are oil and natural gas often found together in the same reservoir?

6.Natural-gas processing plants are used to purify the raw natural gas, are not they?

7.What does the composition of the raw natural gas depend on?

8.What gas is classified as “associated-dissolved” and “non-associated”?

9.When must natural gas undergo processing?

10.The processing of natural gas is very important for petroleum industry, isn’t it?

Упр. 10. Перескажите содержание текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say some words about; the text is about; the text deals with; it should be noted that; it’s important to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; according to the text; the subject of the text is; as a matter of fact; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

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Урок 9.

Тема: Использование природного газа.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Uses of natural gas”

Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use of gas turbines and steam turbines. Most grid peaking power plants and some off-grid engine-generators use natural gas. Particularly high efficiencies can be achieved through combining gas turbines with a steam turbine in combined cycle mode. Natural gas burns more cleanly than other hydrocarbon fuels, such as oil and coal, and produces less carbon dioxide per unit of energy released. For an equivalent amount of heat, burning natural gas produces about 30% less carbon dioxide than burning petroleum and about 45% less than burning coal. Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is thus the cleanest source of power available using hydrocarbon fuels, and this technology is widely used wherever gas can be obtained at a reasonable cost. Fuel cell technology may eventually provide cleaner options for converting natural gas into electricity, but as yet it is not price-competitive.

Natural gas dispensed from a simple stovetop can generate heat in excess of 1093°C making it a powerful domestic cooking and heating fuel. In much of the developed world it is supplied to homes via pipes where it is used for many purposes including natural gas-powered ranges and ovens, natural gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling and central heating. Home or other building heating may include boilers, furnaces, and water heaters. Compressed natural gas (CNG) is used in rural homes without connections to piped-in public utility services, or with portable grills. However, due to CNG being less economical than LPG, LPG (propane) is the dominant source of rural gas.

CNG is a cleaner alternative to other automobile fuels such as gasoline (petrol) and diesel. The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines. Gasoline/petrol vehicles converted to run on natural gas suffer because of the low compression ratio of their engines, resulting in a cropping of delivered power while running on natural gas. CNG-specific engines, however, use a higher compression ratio due to this fuel's higher octane number of 120–130.

Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia for use in fertilizer production.

The advantages of liquid methane as a jet engine fuel are that it has more specific energy than the standard kerosene mixes do and that its low temperature can help cool the air which the engine compresses for greater volumetric efficiency, in effect replacing an intercooler. Alternatively, it can be used to lower the temperature of the exhaust.

Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen, with one common method – the hydrogen reforming. Hydrogen has many applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, an important commodity for oil refineries, and a fuel source in hydrogen vehicles.

Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint, and other products.

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Слова к тексту.

generation – образование gas turbine – газовая турбина

steam turbine – паровая турбина grid – сеть, сетка

power plant – силовая установка, центральная электростанция peaking – дифференцирование, обострение, достижение максимума engine – двигатель, машина

generator – генератор achieve – достигать cycle – цикл, период

mode – способ, метод, форма, вид combined – связанный, составной, сложный fuel cell – тепловой элемент

price-competitive – конкурентоспособная цена domestic fuel – топливо коммунального назначения heating fuel – горючее для отопительных целей furnace – печка

heat – тепло, нагрев

compressed – сжатый, сдавленный ammonia – аммиак

fertilizer – удобрение

carbon monoxide – окись углерода nitrogen oxide – окись азота

intercooler – промежуточный охладитель, холодильник компрессора, exhaust – выхлопная труба, выхлоп

hydrogen reforming – реформинг водорода hydrogenating agent – гидрирующий агент commodity – предмет потребления, товар fabric – ткань

paint – краска, краситель rural – сельский

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

газовая турбина, достигать, углеводородное топливо, углекислый газ, тепло, торговый природный газ, источник, тепловой элемент, горючее для отопительных целей, печь, сжатый природный газ, бензин, аммиак, водород, предмет потребления, применение, спрос, вещество, углеводородные соединения, центральное отопление, источник топлива.

Упр. 2. Переведите следующие словосочетания:

major source of electricity generation high efficiencies can be achieved independent natural gas suppliers

major feedstock for the production of ammonia important commodity for oil refineries powerful domestic cooking and heating fuel advantages of liquid methane

primary feedstock for the chemical industry

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dominant source of rural gas converting natural gas into electricity

Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1. stream turbines

1.

водонагреватель

2. fuel cell

2.

окись углерода

3. provide

3.

технический бутан

4. pipes

4.

низкая температура

5. water heater

5.

обеспечивать

6. carbon monoxide

6.

паровая турбина

7. low temperature

7.

тепловой элемент

8. manufacture

8.

смесь

9. mixture

9.

производство

10. commercial butane

10. трубы

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

сжатый природный газ

1. burn

2.

печь

2. can be obtained

3.

нефтяной продукт

3. oven

4.

жидкий метан

4. compressed natural gas

5.

химический состав

5. hydrogen reforming

6.

гидрирующий агент

6. nitrogen oxide

7.

реформинг водорода

7. hydrogenating agent

8.

может быть получен

8. liquid methane

9.

гореть

9. chemical content

10. окись азота

10. petroleum product

Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation.

2.Hydrogen has many applications.

3.Compressed natural gas is used in rural homes.

4.Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen.

5.Natural gas burns more cleanly than other hydrocarbon fuel.

6.Years ago, the gas was just vented to the atmosphere.

7.For hundreds of years, natural gas has been known as a very useful substance.

8.And no doubt, new uses of natural gas are being discovered all the time.

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.Natural gas processing is an important part of the production process.

2.Hydrogen is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry.

3.Most grid peaking power plants and some off-grid engine-generators use natural gas.

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4.A separator is a piece of equipment used to separate wellstream gas from free liquids.

5.Natural gas burns more cleanly than other hydrocarbon fuels.

6.Natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbons are separated by various field processing methods.

7.Natural gas can’t be used to produce hydrogen.

8.The food industry will often employ natural gas for larger-scale cooking operations, such as baking.

Упр. 7. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1.Природный газ (метан) используется как сырье для производства аммиака, ацетилена, метанола, цианистого водорода и других важнейших полупродуктов для органического синтеза.

2.Сжиженный нефтяной газ это смесь технического пропана и технического бутана.

3. В промышленности водород получают главным образом из природного газа.

4.Водород является важным продуктом для нефтеперерабатывающих заводов.

5.Именно с использованием природного газа стало возможно создавать многие химические вещества, которые не существуют в природе, например – полиэтилен.

6.Природный газ широко применяется в качестве горючего в жилых, частных и многоквартирных домах для отопления, подогрева воды и приготовления пищи; как топливо для машин, котельных и др.

7.Путем нескольких химических превращений из природного газа получают также минеральные удобрения.

8.Природный газ используется в производстве тканей, стекла, пластмасс, красок и других продуктов.

9.Природный газ является более экономичным средством отопления и охлаждения больших офисных зданий.

10.Природный газ используется для производства метанола.

Упр. 8. Пользуясь словарем, письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык.

1.There are several ways in which the liquefiable components may be removed from natural gas.

2.Absorption is a process in which rich gas in contracted with a heavier hydrocarbon oil that has been fractionated to specification.

3.The amount of liquefiable gas components absorbed by the oil depends on the pressure and temperature of the absorber, the relative flow rates of the gas and oil, and the inlet composition of the gas and oil, as well as the amount of contact achieved.

4.Recovery of butanes and heavier hydrocarbons depends on the amounts present initially and their molecular weight.

5.The cost of transporting raw sulfur for use in chemical operations is likely to be prohibitive unless the consumer is close to the gas processing plant or inexpensive transportation is available.

6.Residue gas is any gas suitable for sale as commercial natural gas that comes from a processing plant.

7.Sweet gas means that the content of hydrogen sulfide, other sulfur compounds and carbon dioxide is low enough that the gas may be sold commercially without further effort to remove these compounds.

8.An increasing number of gas and gas condensate reservoirs are being discovered that contain hydrogen sulfide of carbon dioxide treatment is required.

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9.Natural gas can also be used for on-site energy production through the use of turbines and even fuel-cell technology, reducing the dependence on more expensive off-site electricity production and reducing the energy lost during the transmission of electricity.

10.Natural gas performs numerous industrial functions, including incineration of waste, boiler fuel, drying and as a feedstock for a variety of products.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1.What does natural gas contain?

2.Is natural gas a major source of electricity generation?

3.What burns more cleanly then other hydrocarbon fuels?

4.Can natural gas generate heat?

5.Where is compressed natural gas used?

6.Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen, can’t it?

7.What applications has hydrogen?

8.In manufacture of what other products is natural gas used?

9.What are the advantages of liquid methane as a jet engine fuel?

10.Where is ammonia used?

Упр. 10. Обсудите содержание текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы:

The text is about; the text deals with; the content of the text; I’d like to say some words about; it should be noted that; it’s important to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; according to the text; the subject of the text is; as a matter of fact; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

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Урок 10.

Тема: Хранение и транспортировка природного газа.

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

Text “Storage and transport of natural gas”.

Because of its low density, it is not easy to store natural gas or transport by vehicle. Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans.

LNG carriers transport liquefied natural gas across oceans, while tank trucks can carry liquefied or compressed natural gas (CNG) over shorter distances. Sea transport using CNG carrier ships that are now under development may be competitive with LNG transport in specific conditions.

Gas is turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant, and is returned to gas form at regasification plant at the terminal. Shipborne regasification equipment is also used. LNG is the preferred form for long distance, high volume transportation of natural gas, whereas pipeline is preferred for transport for distances up to 4,000 km over land and approximately half that distance offshore.

CNG is transported at high pressure, typically above 200 bars. Compressors and decompression equipment are less capital intensive and may be economical in smaller unit sizes than liquefaction/regasification plants. Natural gas trucks and carriers may transport natural gas directly to end-users, or to distribution points such as pipelines.

In the past, the natural gas which was recovered in the course of recovering petroleum could not be profitably sold, and was simply burned at the oil field in a process known as flaring. Flaring is now illegal in many countries. Additionally, companies now recognize that gas may be sold to consumers in the form of LNG or CNG, or through other transportation methods. The gas is now re-injected into the formation for later recovery. The re-injection also assists oil pumping by keeping underground pressures higher.

Natural gas is often stored underground inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas. The gas is injected in a time of low demand and extracted when demand picks up. Storage nearby end users helps to meet volatile demands, but such storage may not always be practicable.

Worldwide, liquefied natural gas production has been largely driven by progressive gains in economics of shipping large LNG volumes by sea from major gas producers to (mostly remote) countries without their own gas production capacity.

In general terms, marine gas shipments to consumers can be summarized as follows. An onshore liquefaction plant is to be built, to deliver LNG to local storage. Then, using cryogenic pumps, LNG should be loaded into tankers. On delivery to a receiving terminal, LNG will be pumped into storage from which, as necessary, the volumes will be regasified and delivered by pipelines to consumers.

With 15 countries accounting for 84% of the worldwide extraction, access to natural gas has become an important issue in international politics, and countries vie for control of pipelines. In the first decade of the 21st century, Gazprom, the state-owned energy company in Russia, engaged in disputes with Ukraine and Belarus over the price of natural gas, which have created worries that gas deliveries to parts of Europe could be cut off for political reasons.

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Слова к тексту.

low density – низкая плотность storage – хранилище, хранение store – накапливать, запасать

carrier – транспортное судно; перевозчик tank-truck – автоцистерна

competitive – конкурирующий liquefaction – сжижение regasification – регазификация

shipborne – перевозимый морем, корабельный

re-injection – обратное нагнетание, закачка добытого газа обратно в пласт gas flaring – сжигание газа в факелах

depleted – истощенный, исчерпанный salt dome – соляной купол

demand – потребление, спрос, потребности pick up – поднимать, подбирать

offshore – морской, в открытом море

onshore – береговая зона, прибрежный, наземный disturbance – нарушение, повреждение

decompression – падение давления, снижение давления decommissioning – вывод из эксплуатации, ликвидация refurbish – восстанавливать, обновлять, ремонтировать re-developed – вновь развивать, реконструировать pump – накачивать

prohibitive – запретительный, запрещающий gains – доход, прибыль, рост, прирост

regasify – повторно испарять сжиженные углеводородные газы terminal – конечная станция, перевалочная база

volatile – летучий, легкий

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

производство, объем, мощность, морской, потребитель, местное хранилище, криогенный насос, поставлять, транспортное средство, условия, оборудование, высокое давление, сжигание газа в факелах, перекачка нефти, экологический фактор, компрессорная установка, деловые возможности, экономическая выгода, морской транспорт, автоцистерна, газовое хранилище.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания:

liquefied natural gas production progressive gains in economics

high volume transportation of natural gas process known as flaring gas

gas may be sold to consumers state-owned energy company development of offshore gas reserves new business opportunities for countries could be cut off for political reasons own gas production capacity

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Упр. 3. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1.Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans.

2.Tanks trucks can carry compressed natural gas over shorter distances.

3.Gas is turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant.

4.In the past, the natural gas was burned at the oil field in a process known as flaring.

5.Avoiding construction also helps to preserve marine and coastal environments.

6.In addition, environmental disturbance will be minimized during decommissioning.

7.Many oil and gas companies are considering the economic and environmental benefits of floating liquefied natural gas.

8.Natural gas has been produced in this region for a long time.

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1. shipping

1. газовая скважина

2. gas production

2.

спрос

3. consumer

3.

соляной купол

4. low density

4.

перевозка груза

5. pipelines network

5.

запасать

6. competitive

6.

добыча газа

7. gas well

7.

низкая плотность

8. demand

8.

конкурирующий

9. store

9.

сеть трубопроводов

10. salt dome

10. потребитель

Упр. 5. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

1.

автоцистерна

1. large volumes

2.

нефтяное месторождение

2. gas producer

3.

газовый резервуар

3. transport natural gas

4.

цена природного газа

4. tank truck

5.

морской

5. liquefaction plant

6.

запасы газа

6. offshore

7.

огромные объемы

7. oil field

8.

установка сжижения (газа)

8. gas reservoir

9.

производитель газа

9. price of natural gas

10. транспортировать природный газ

10. gas reserves

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1.Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans.

2.Natural gas is used to generate electricity and heat for desalination.

3.Like oil, natural gas is often found underwater in offshore gas fields.

4.The gas is injected in a time of low demand and extracted when demand picks up.

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5.Gas is turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant.

6.At present, 12 countries are LNG exporters globally.

7.Other LNG carrier modifications are also available to international shippers.

8.Avoiding construction also helps preserve marine and coastal environments.

Упр. 7. Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1.Вследствие низкой плотности, нелегко перекачивать и перевозить природный газ транспортными средствами.

2.Танкеры перевозят сжиженный природный газ через океан, в то время как автоцистерны могут перевозить сжиженный природный газ на короткие расстояния.

3.Сжиженный природный газ транспортируется под высоким давлением.

4.В прошлом, попутный газ, который был извлечен при добыче нефти, не мог быть выгодно продан и просто сжигался на нефтяном месторождении в процессе, известном как сжигание газа в факелах.

5.Хранение сжиженного природного газа осуществляется только в низкотемпературных (изотермичных) резервуарах.

6.Хранение и транспортировка сжатого природного газа происходит в специальных накопителях газа под давлением.

7.Используя криогенные насосы, сжиженный природный газ должен отгружаться в танкеры.

8.Добываемый в России природный газ поступает в магистральные газопроводы.

9.Газовое хранилище представляет собой геологическую структуру или искусственный резервуар, используемый для хранения газа.

10.Регазификация сжиженного природного газа это процесс преобразования СПГ из жидкого состояния в газообразное, после чего он становится пригодным для обычного использования – подачи по трубопроводам потребителям и закачки в газовые баллоны.

Упр. 8. Пользуясь словарем, письменно переведите следующие предложения:

1.Offshore gas development is emerging as the backbone of Russia’s gas sector operations: virtually all major Russian “new gas” projects are associated with offshore development.

2.At present, several firms are offering LNG carriers using different shipbuilding technologies.

3.There are no LNG tankers under construction in Russia at under construction in Russia at present.

4.Multi-modal transportation of LNG in tank-type containers is likely to provide a viable alternative to conventional LNG carrier shipments.

5.It’s widely known that cryogenic tanks largely differ in their capacity (working volume), LNG operating pressure, and admissible storage duration.

6.Drain free storage time is dependent on insulation choice which, in turn, is driving total costs.

7.For marine shipment, LNG is loaded into the main aluminium or stainless steel envelope.

8.This equipment offers additional applications such as gasification in rural areas, where laying pipe is believed impossible or uneconomical as well as smaller standalone utilities designed to meet local heating needs.

9.Natural gas storage plays a vital role in maintaining the reliability of supply needed to meet the demands of consumers.

10.The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consumption regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system.

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Упр. 9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1.Is it easy to store natural gas and transport by vehicle?

2.What is impractical across ocean?

3.Compressed natural gas is transported at high pressure, is not it?

4.In what forms may gas be sold to consumers?

5.Where is natural gas often stored?

6.What is to be built, to deliver liquefied natural gas to local storage?

7.Where may gas trucks and carries transport natural gas?

8.Is gas turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant?

9.Why was natural gas burned at the oil field?

10.What is now illegal in many countries?

Упр. 10. Перескажите текст. Используйте следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say some words about; it’s important to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; the text is about; the text deals with; the content of the text; it should be noted that; according to the text; the subject of the text is; as a matter of fact; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

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ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ

Text 1.

Drilling.

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the workpiece, which forms chips at the cutting edge.

Drilled holes are characterized by their sharp edge on the entrance side and the presence of burrs on the exit side (unless they have been removed). Also, the inside of the hole usually has helical feed marks.

Drilling may affect the mechanical properties of the workpiece by creating low residual stresses around the hole opening and a very thin layer of highly stressed and disturbed material on the newly formed surface. This causes the workpiece to become more susceptible to corrosion at the stressed surface.

For fluted drill bits, any chips are removed via the flutes. Chips may be long spirals or small flakes, depending on the material, and process parameters. The type of chips formed can be an indicator of the machinability of the material, with long gummy chips reducing machinability.

When possible drilled holes should be located perpendicular to the workpiece surface. This minimizes the drill bit's tendency to "walk", that is, to be deflected, which causes the hole to be misplaced. The higher the length-to-diameter ratio of the drill bit, the higher the tendency to walk. The tendency to walk is also preempted in various other ways, which include:

Establishing a centering mark or feature before drilling, such as by:

-Casting, molding, or forging a mark into the workpiece;

-Center punching;

-Spot drilling (i.e., center drilling);

-Spot facing, which is facing a certain area on a rough casting or forging to establish, essentially, an island of precisely known surface in a sea of imprecisely known surface.

Constraining the position of the drill bit using a drill jig with drill bushings.

Surface finish in drilling may range from 32 to 500 microinches. Finish cuts will generate surfaces near 32 microinches, and roughing will be near 500 microinches.

Cutting fluid is commonly used to cool the drill bit, increase tool life, increase speeds and feeds, increase the surface finish, and aid in ejecting chips. Application of these fluids is usually done by flooding the workpiece or by applying a spray mist.

In deciding which drill(s) to use it is important to consider the task at hand and evaluate which drill would best accomplish the task. There are a variety of drill styles that each serve a different purpose. The subland drill is capable of drilling more than one diameter. The spade drill is used to drill larger hole sizes. The indexable drill is useful in managing chips.

Задание 1. Расскажите, что нового вы узнали из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say some words about; it’s important to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; the text is about; the text deals with; the content of the text; it should be noted that; according to the text; the subject of the text is; as a matter of fact; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

Задание 2. Закончите предложение, с которого можно начать аннотацию текста:

The purpose of this text is to…

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Text 2.

Classification of drilling methods.

By way of influence on rock drilling methods are classified on mechanical and nonmechanical distinction drilling. By mechanical drilling, drilling tools directly affects the rock, destroying it, and if a non mechanical failure occurs without direct contact with the rock source of influence on it. Non-mechanical means (hydraulic, thermal, electrophysical) are under development and drilling for oil and gas wells are not currently used.

Mechanical drilling methods are divided into percussion and rotary. When percussion drilling destruction of rocks is a chisel, hanging on a rope. Drilling tool also includes a shock rod and the cable lock. He hung on the rope, which straddles unit mounted on a mast. Reciprocating chisel tool provides a drilling rig.

With the deepening of the well rope lengthens. Cylindricity wells is provided by turning the drill bit during operation.

To clean the face of shattered rock drilling tools periodically removed from the wells and bailer is lowered into it, like a long bucket with a valve at the bottom. When immersed in a mixture of bailer fluid (reservoir or poured on top) and drilled rock particles valve opens and the bailer is filled with this mixture. When lifting bailer valve is closed and the mixture is extracted to the top.

At the end of treatment in the face again falls well drilling tools and drilling continues. To avoid the collapse of the borehole walls in her lowered casing, the length of which are

increasing with the deepening of the face.

Oil and gas wells are constructed using rotary drilling. With this method does not break up rock beats, and destroyed a rotating drill bit, which acts on the axial load. The torque is transmitted to the bit or on the surface of the rotator (rotor) through a column of drill pipes (Rotary Drilling) or from the downhole motor (turbo-drill, electric drill, screw the motor), mounted directly above the drill bit.

Turbodrill – a hydraulic turbine, driven in rotation by means of injection wells in the drilling fluid. The electric drill is an electric motor is protected against the penetration of the liquid food which is served by cable to the surface. Screw engine – a type of downhole hydraulic machine in which to convert the energy of the flow of washing fluid into mechanical energy of the rotational motion of the screw mechanism is used.

By the nature of rock at the bottom distinguish drilling methods are classified on solid and core drilling. With the continuous drilling of rock disintegration over the entire area of the face. Core drilling involves the destruction of species only in the ring in order to extract the core – a cylindrical sample of rock for the whole or part of the length of the borehole. With the sampling sites studied properties, composition and structure of rocks, as well as the composition and properties of the fluid saturating the rock.

All drill bits are classified into three types:

1.chisel cutting-shearing action of destroying the rock vanes (blade bit);

2.crushing bit-shearing action of destroying the rock teeth, located on the cone (cone bits);

3.bit-cutting abrasive action of destroying the rock diamond grains or carbide rods, which are located in front of the drill bit (diamond and carbide bits.)

Задание 1. Прокомментируйте следующие тезисы, используя разговорные формулы:

The statement is right (wrong): it should be pointed; it should be noted; according to the text; as a matter of fact; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

1.1.By way of influence on rock drilling methods are classified on mechanical and nonmechanical distinction drilling.

1.2.Oil and gas wells are constructed using percussion drilling.

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1.3.By the nature of rock at the bottom distinguish drilling methods are classified on solid and core drilling.

1.4.All drill bits are classified into four types.

Задание 2. Составьте аннотацию текста.

Text 3.

UK oil and gas.

The UK is uniquely positioned as a world-class partner for both upstream and downstream projects in the Oil & Gas industry.

UK companies have an outstanding reputation for innovation and manufacturing excellence, dating back to the industrial revolution. Cutting-edge firms can satisfy practically every aspect of the energy industry supply chain, both upstream and downstream, with innovative world-class, fit-for-purpose solutions.

Over the last 40 years, exploration and development of the hostile deep waters of the North Sea has created an unequalled range of products, services and expertise, which now play a major role in offshore and onshore hydrocarbon developments worldwide. UK companies are often partners of choice for challenging new developments in Oil & Gas prospects across the world.

UK firms have developed a vast range of subsea technology, novel offshore platform floating production systems, compelling software, environmental management and control systems, which are now utilised globally. Energy operators of all sizes exploit UK expertise for reservoir analysis and modelling, innovative downhole tools and techniques for drilling multilateral wells, e-enabled reservoir management systems, advanced communications, process control and measurement and support services. UK firms have managed to extend the life of many oilfields that were previously considered only marginally economic, as well as developing deepwater reserves in hostile waters.

There is also a wealth of groundbreaking technology downstream, covering every facet of UK-designed and developed gas transmission and low and medium pressure distribution technology, advanced metering services, control and instrumentation, network modelling, storage, transportation and allied systems.

UK manufacturers can provide virtually all the necessary technology from vast gas compressors and trenchless pipeline laying systems to the latest cogeneration plants and compressed natural gas vehicles. UK firms are experienced at dealing with demanding national and international regulation, while also satisfying highly competitive commercial requirements.

Задание 1. Определите основную идею текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы:

The main idea of the text is; the text deals with; according to the text; the text is about.

Задание 2. Закончите предложение, с которого можно начать аннотацию текста:

The purpose of this text is to…

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