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Дрёмов С.В., Сёмин И.Р. - Измененные состояния сознания

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-/7:/D+,/ 3*+C15.A, 9./ 6258+B+65F+; 656 3-*-:/D1G: ,-ID@ 4+1D*/,58A1G,+ 4/4./;- 1+;,+ +8+ 656 +1+F+58A1G: *544.*/04.2 4/C151+; 1- +,--. F-11/4.+ D8; D+5=1/4.+6+, 8-9-1+; + 3*/=1/C+*/251+;. /8-- ./=/, 3*/78-,5 ,/I-. 2G=8;D-.A 6*501- 1-@D/71/0 D8; 68+1+F+- 4./2, 3/46/8A6@ 153/,+15-. /7 /4.*/ 3-*-I+25-,G: C5.*@D1-1+;: 21@.*+ 68+1+9-46/0 35*5D+=,G.*/+88H4.*+*@-, E./ 48-D@H?+,+ 3*+,-*5,+.

?- 2 *511-0 *-B8-64/8/=+9-46/0 <6/8- .56 15CG25-,G- =+31/+D1GB5CG - 1-0*/B+C+/8/=+9-- 46+- 3*-D3/4G86+ - /F-1+258+4A 656 2G*5I-1+- 1/*,58A1/0 I+C1-D-;.-8A1/4.+ + /D1/2*-- ,-11/ - 656 B+C+/8/=+9-465; /41/25 1-2*/C/2 + 34+:/C/2, 2 ./, 9+48- <+C/B*-1++. " +31/.+9-- 46+- B5CG, 656 7G8/ @4.51/28-1/, 24-=D5 +,-H. ,-4./ .5,, =D- 3/;28;-.4; *5C8+./- ./*,/I-1+- - 1-C52+4+,/ /. ./=/, 2/C1+65-. 8+ /1/ 2 1/*,58A1G: +8+ 35./8/=+9-46+: @48/2+;:; *5C1+F5 C568H- 95-.4; ./8A6/ 2 ./,, 9./ =+31/.+9-46+- B5CG 2 35./8/=+9-46+: @48/2+;: +,-H. C159+.-8A1/ 7/8-- D8+.-8A1G0 + 4./06+0 :5*56.-*, 9-, 2 1/*,-, =D- /1+ ,+,/8-.1G" ('+C/B*-1+;, 1975, 4.149-150).*+ +C@9-1++ 2 -EBB-6.5: 3/D1+,584; 2/3*/4, 48-D@-. 8+ 15CG25.A 2/C1+65H?+- 34+- :/35./8/=+9-46+- ;28-1+; 34+:/C/, +8+ 1@I1/ /4.51/2+.A4; 15 ,-1-- /7;CG25H?-, .-*,+1- ",/D-8A1G0 34+:/C". . @C@8+4 4 4/52./*5,+ (Gouzoulis et al., 1994) 2 E./0 42;C+ 3+<-., 9./ , 2GC2511G- 34+:/D-8+65,+, ,/=@. 48@I+.A ,/D-8AH 8+<A D8; 159585 /4.*/=/ E1D/=-11/=/ 34+:/C5, 1/ 1- D8; <+C/B*-1++, *544,5.*+25-,/0 656 1/C/8/=+9-465; -D+1+F5. . 64,51 4 4/52./*5,+ (Oxman et al., 1988) D8; 4*521-1+; 4@7R-6.+21/=/ /3G.5 2 *5C8+91G: B/*,5: 3*/5158+C+*/- 258 45,//.9-.G, 8-64+9-46+- 4*-D4.25, +43/8AC@-,G- 2 /3+451++ 42/+: 4/4./;1+0 7/8A1G,+ <+- C/B*-1+-0, 4@7R-6.5,+, 3*+,-1;2<+,+ =588HF+1/=-1G, + 8+F5,+, 3-*-I+2<+,+ .56 15CG25-,G0 ,+4.+9-46+0 /3G.. *-C@8A.5.- 52./*G 3*+<8+ 6 C568H9-1+H, 9./ 4@7R-6.+21G0 /3G. 2 .*-: =*@335: +,--. 7/8A<- *5C8+9+0, 9-, /7?+: 9-*..

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

4+:/8/=+9-46+- .*56./26+ 4/D-*I51+; 7G8+ 3/D2-*=1@.G 6*+.+6- 4/ 4./*/1G 34+:+5.*/2.. . 51?+6/2 + . . ./8;*/2 (1966) B+64+*@H., 9./ /3+4511G- 2 E643-*+,-1.- +88HC++, 4,--

6

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

. . /*/8-16/ (1978, 4.158-159), :5*56.-*+C@; 34+:/B+C+/8/=+9-46/- 4/4./;1+- ,+=*51./2 15*501-, -2-*- 656 4+1D*/, "34+:/E,/F+/158A1/=/ 153*;I-1+;", D58 /3+451+-, 9*-C2G9501/ 78+C6/- B-1/,-1/8/=++ , 3*-D4.528-11/0 D*@=+,+ 52./*5,+[2]. *+ E./, . . /*/8-16/ /4-

.51/2+84; 15 6/**-6.1/, C568H9-1++, 4/=8541/ 6/./*/,@ 4+1D*/, 34+:/E,/F+/158A1/=/ 153*;I-- 1+; "1- 3*-D4.528;-.4; 2/C,/I1G, 42/D+.A 3*/4./ 6 25*+51.@ 1/*,G +8+, .-, 7/8--, *544,5.*+- 25.A 4/4./;1+- 2 385135./8/=++" (.5, I-).

*@=+- 48@95+ , /3+4511G- /.-9-4.2-11G,+ 52./*5,+, D-,/14.*+*@H. 34+:/35./8/=+9-46@H 4+,3./,5.+6@ 238/.A D/ 34+:/.+9-46+: *544.*/04.2; 15*;D@ 4 E.+, +,-H.4; *57/.G, 42+D-.-8A4.- 2@H?+- / 3/;28-1++ .56/0 4+,3./,5.+6+ @ 4/2-*<-11/ CD/*/2G: 8+F ( 5*+1, /4,/8+146+0, @<- 1/2, 1970; @C1-F/2, -7-D-2, 1972 + D*.).

56+, /7*5C/,, 2 42;C+ 4 3*/78-,/0 3/D1+,5-.4; 2/3*/4 / *5C=*51+9-1++ 1/*,G + 35./8/- =++, 34+:/8/=+9-46/=/ + 34+:/35./8/=+9-46/=/, 3*+9-, 2G;28;-.4; @48/21/4.A 656/0-8+7/ *5C=*5- 1+9+.-8A1/0 9-*.G. +./=- 15 D511/, E.53- *544,/.*-1+; 4 /3*-D-8-11/4.AH ,/I1/ =/2/- *+.A 8+<A / ./,, 9./ /1+ ;28;H.4; 1-43-F+B+9-46/0 *-56F+-0. /3*/4 I- / 6258+B+65F++ B-1/- ,-1/8/=++ 2 *5,65: D+:/./,++ 1/*,G + 35./8/=++ .*-7@-. 3/+465 5D-625.1G: +448-D/25-

.-8A46+: 3/D:/D/2.

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uber, 1990).

G8/ /7*5?-1/ 21+,51+- 15 7/8A<+- 48/I1/4.+ 4+,3./,5./8/=+-9-46+: *5C=*51+9-1+0 4/D-*I5- 1+; @ CD/*/2G: /. 68+1+9-46+: 3*/;28-1+0 <+C/B*-1++ + @65CG258/4A, 9./ "*5C1+F5 ,-ID@ 65*.+15,+ <+C/B*-1++ @ *5C8+91G: 7/8A1G: 7/8A<-, 9-, *5C1+F5 ,-ID@ EBB-6.5,+ + <+- C/B*-1+-0" ( /B-*, 1963, 4.74-75). -4,/.*; 15 ,1/=/8-.1+- +448-D/251+;, 3*+*/D5 -

7

4/4./;1+0 .56 + 1- 7G85 @4.51/28-15. 5 E6C/=-11/- 3*/+4:/ID-1+- 42+D-.-8A4.2/258/ /.,-95-- ,/- 15651@1- 3/81/- 34+:+9-46/- CD/*/2A- 24-: +43G.@-,G:, 5 /.4@.4.2+- :5*56.-*1G: D8; E6C/- =-11G: 34+:/C/2 *544.*/04.2 4/C151+; + 2G*5I-11/4.A E1D/=-11/0 4+,3./,5.+6+ 4.52+8+ 3/D 4/- ,1-1+- +468H9+.-8A1@H */8A E6C/=-11G: B56./*/2.

E./0 42;C+ 15+7/8-- /3*52D51/ =/2/*+.A / ./,, 9./ +C,-1-1+; 4/C151+;, *544,5.*+25-,G- 656 1-43-F+B+9-465; *-56F+;, 2/C1+65H. 1-C52+4+,/ /. E6C/- 8+7/ E1D/=-11/=/ 3*/+4:/ID-1+; 2/C- D-04.2+0.

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

42;C+ 4 E.+,+ 4-*A-C1G,+ D/2/D5,+ 1-/7:/D+,/ *-<+.A, 4./+. 8+ 4/=85<5.A4; 4 @4./;2<-04;

./96/0 C*-1+;, 4/=8541/ 6/./*/0 .-*,+1 3*+,-1+, 8+<A 2 /3+451++ 34+:+6+ CD/*/2G: 8HD-0

(Ludvig, 1966; Dittrich et al., 1986; Kokoszka, 1987; 3+256, 1988), 8+7/ 15D/ D/3@4.+.A, 9./ 2 34+:+-

5.*++ 3*/78-,5 -?- 1- /4/C1515 2 D/8I1/0 ,-*- + 1- +,--. 5D-625.1G: 43/4/7/2 2G*5I-- 1+;.

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

G 4/2-*<-11/ /3*-D-8-11/ +,--, D-8/ 4 @48/21/4.AH, + 2/3*/4 ./8A6/ 2 ./,, 9./ D5-. 3*+1;-

.+- *544,/.*-11G: 2G<- D/2/D/2 D8; 2GD-8-1+; 1/*,58A1G: + 35./8/=+9-46+ +C,-1-11G: 4/- 4./;1+0 4/C151+;. - 3*+2-D-. 8+ E./ 2 /9-*-D1/0 *5C 6 /<+76-, /3+4511/0 2 +C2-4.1/0 DI50146/0 465C6- / 48/1- + 4-,+ 48-3F5:: ./. +C 1+:, 6./ 654584; 1/=+ 48/15, D@,58, 9./ 48/1 3/:/I 15 4.2/8 D-*-25; ./., 6./ 3*+654584; 6 :2/4.@, 49+.58, 9./ 48/1 3/:/I 15 ,/9586@ + ..D. ( /1=5*D--2+1, 1993, 4.71). /D/71@H 3/C1525.-8A1@H 78+C/*@6/4.A 7G8/ 7G 1-3*52+8A1/ 3*+3+45.A. 5*.@ - @9-1/,@ 4 ;21G, :/8+4.+9-46+, 2+D-1+-,. @I1/ /.,-.+.A, 9./, 2G4.@35; C5 1-/7:/D+- ,/4.A *5C8+9-1+; D+4F+38+1, 15@6 + ,-.5;CG6/2 D8; 5D-625.1/=/ *544,/.*-1+; , . 5*. (1996) +,--. 2 2+D@ "3*-*G21G- 4/4./;1+; 4/C151+;", /.*5I5H?+- D+46*-.1G0 (6/14.51.1G0) 54- 3-6. 4/C151+;.

+46*-.1G, 543-6./, 4/C151+; /7@48/28-15 D+4F+38+15*15; *5CD*/78-11/4.A ,1/=+: 4/2*-,-1- 1G: @9-1+0. 5 /41/251++ 4/D-*I5.-8A1G: 954.1G: D-46*+3.+21G: :5*56.-*+4.+6 4/C151+; 4.*/- +.4; + 68+1+9-465; 4+4.-,5.+65. 3+451+- + 5158+C 6/14.51.1G: 4/4./;1+0 4/C151+; 48@I5. 3*+-

8

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

56 +C2-4.1/, 15+7/8-- @D591/0 +8+, 3/ 6*501-0 ,-*-, 15+7/8-- <+*/6/ +43/8AC@-,/0 ,-.5B/*/0 1-3*-*G21/4.+ 4/C151+; ;28;-.4; 2G*5I-1+- "3/./6 4/C151+;". -3*-*G21/4.A 2G*5I5-.4; 43/- 4/71/4.AH 3/4./;11/ +C,-1;.A4;, 3-*-:/D+.A +C /D1/=/ 4/4./;1+; 4/C151+; 2 D*@=/- (D+15,+65 4/C151+;); 1-3*-*G21/4.A C5D5-.4; *5C1//7*5C+-, 2C5+,/42;C511G: "3/.-1F+58A1G: B/*, 4/C- 151+;" ( I-,4, 1992); /7@48/28+25-. +C,-19+2/4.A + 3/8+,/*B1/4.A B-1/,-1/8/=++ (<+*/- 6+0 D+535C/1 21-<1+: 3*/;28-1+0 /. 4/4./;1+; 8-=6/0 C5D@,9+2/4.+ + 45,/@=8@78-1+; 4 *544-- ;11/4.AH 21+,51+; D/ ./.58A1/0 +1.*/2-*4++ 4 34+:/35./8/=+9-46/0 3*/D@6F+-0); 1-3*-*G21/4.A 4/3*;I-15 4 56.+21/4.AH 4/C151+; + 3/4./;14.2/, 153*528-11/4.+ 56./2 4/C151+; (+1.-1F+/- 158A1/4.AH); /3*-D-8;-. /7?+- B@16F+/158A1G- + 4,G48/2G- :5*56.-*+4.+6+ 4/C151+;. .+, 3-*-91-, C5D5-.4; +1.-*-4@H?5; 154 3*/78-,5.+65 , D/ Hactofliuero 2*-,-1+ 1-D/4.5./91/ *546*G.5; 2 34+:+5.*++.

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9

. +..*+: - /D+1 +C 15+7/8-- +C2-4.1G: +448-D/25.-8-0 , /.4.5+25H?+0 3/8/I-1+- / 3*+- 15D8-I1/4.+ ./8A6/ 34+:+6- CD/*/2G: +1D+2+D/2, 2 42/-0 7/8-- 3/CD1-0 *57/.- (Dittrich, 1996) 21/4+. 4@?-4.2-11@H, 15 15< 2C=8;D, 6/**-6.+2@. / -=/ ,1-1+H, /3*-D-8-1+- 656 35-

./8/=+9-46+: 1- +,--. 3/D 4/7/0 7+/8/=+9-46+- +8+ B-1/,-1/8/=+9-46+- 6*+.-*++, 5 C52+4+. /. 4.-3-1+ 4/F+58A1/=/ 6/1.*/8;.=. */,75: (Crombach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1);28;H.4; "*/D/2/0 :5*56.-*+4.+6/0" 34+:+6+ 9-8/2-65 ( 3+256, 1988, 4.138);

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[1],.: +8;*/246+0 . . (1935); /19-246+0 . . (1941); -*F7-*= . . (1961); -8-1A65; . . (1968); *5=+146+0 . . (1979); 8-6451D*/246+0 &. . 4 4/52.. (1991); + D*.

[2],.: 3+256 (1976; 1988); @C1-F/2, -7-D-2 (1972); -7-D-2 (1989).

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