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Дрёмов С.В., Сёмин И.Р. - Измененные состояния сознания

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45

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C2-4.1G D2- 3*/.+2/3/4.528;-,G- D*@= D*@=@ ./96+ C*-1+;. 4//.2-.4.2++ 4 3-*2/0 56F-1. D-- 85-.4; 15 ./,, 9./ 45,/4/C151+- ;28;-.4; 2G4<-0 4.@3-1AH *5C2+.+; 4/C151+; + 2 4//.2-.4.2++ 4 E.+, 4/C151+- -4.A 1-9./ F-8/-, 2 4.*@6.@*- 6/./*/=/ 45,/4/C151+- /3*-D-8;-.4; 656 4@?-4.2-1- 1G0, 1/ 954.1G0 543-6.. D511/0 3/C+F++ /7R-D+1;H.4; 2-4A,5 *5C1/*/D1G2C=8;DG 15 3*+*/D@ 4/C151+;, + =/2/*+.A / -D+1/D@<++ 3/ 2/3*/4@ 4//.1-4-1+; 65.-=/*+0 "4/C151+-" + "45,/4/C15- 1+-" ,/I1/ ./8A6/ @48/21/[1].

*-/785D5H?-- 2 34+:+5.*+9-46+: *57/.5: 3*-D4.528-1+- / 45,/4/C151++ 656 954.+ 4/C151+;,

.56+, /7*5C/,, /7@48/28-1/ @.2-*ID-1+-, 2 .-/*-.+9-46/, + 3*56.+9-46/, /7+:/D- ./8A6/ /D1/0 +C 2/C,/I1G: 6/16*-.1/ 15@91G: ./9-6 C*-1+;. 5,/4/C151+- CD-4A 3/81/4.AH D-.-*,+1+*/251/ 4/C151+-,. *+9-,, 2 /7R;41-1++ E./0 D-.-*,+15F++ +43/8AC@H.4; ,5.-*+58+4.+9-46+- B+8/- 4/B46+- 3*-D3/4G86+, 2G*5I5H?+- D58-6/ 1- 24H 4+4.-,@ B+8/4/B4.2/251+;. 56/0 3/D:/D, =/43/D4.2@H?+0 2 68+1+9-46/0 34+:+5.*++, 15.586+25-.4; 15 F-8G0 *;D .*@D1/4.-0. 3*-D3/9-

.-1++ 4/C151+; 45,/4/C151+H 3*/=8;DG25-. 574/8H.+C5F+; */8+ 6/88-6.+21/=/ 4/C151+; 2 4.5- 1/28-1++ 45,/4/C15H?-=/ 4@7R-6.5. 5 9-8/2-6/, /4.5-.4; 4/F+58A15; D-.-*,+15F+; -=/ 4/C15- 1+;, 1/ 45, /1 8+<5-.4; 656/0-8+7/ 42/7/DG 2/8+, *544,5.*+25-.4; 656 +1D+2+D@58A15; 25*+5- F+; 2C5+,/D-04.2+; D/,+1+*@H?+: 4/F+/6@8A.@*1G: @48/2+0 + 7+/8/=+9-46+: 3*-D3/4G8/6. =-

47

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.-8A1/0 + 4,G48/2/0 2C5+,/42;C+ +C,-1-1+0 4/C151+; 4 68+1+9-46/0 B-1/,-1/8/=+-0. *+ E./, 2 34+:/35./8/=++ C5.*@D1-15 2/C,/I1/4.A +1.*/43-6.+21/=/ 5158+C5, B@16F+/158+4.46+: +1.-*- 3*-.5F+0 + =@,51+.5*1/=/ ./86/251+;, 5 4.*@6.@*5 4/C151+;, 2 6/./*/0 /.4@.4.2@-. 56.+21G0 4@7R-6., /4.5-.4; 3@4./0 + 7-CI+C1-11/0 574.*56F+-0.

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jamais vu, 6/=D5 7/8A1/0 /.8+95-. 4-7; /. /6*@I5H?-=/ ,+*5, 1/ 1- 43/4/7-1 3/C1525.A -=/, 42+D-.-8A4.2@H., 9./ 15*@<-11/- 3*-D,-.1/- 4/C151+- 1- /.*5I5- -.4; 15 /4/C151++ 4/74.2-11/=/ . 56 /.,-95-. .'150D-* (Schneider, 1949; F+.. 3/: ,@8-2+9,/*/7A-2, 1973), 4/C151+- 4/74.2-11/=/ 3*+4@.4.2@-. 2/ 24-: 34+:+5.*+9-46+: 4+.@5F+;:.

*+2-D-11G- + D*@=+- 2/C,/I1G- C5,-951+; 3/65CG25H. 1-3*52/,-*1/4.A 3*-D4.528-1+; / 45- ,/4/C151++ 656 2G4<-0 4.@3-1+ +1D+2+D@58A1/=/ 4/C151+;, ..-. / -=/ 2./*+91/4.+. D156/ /1+ 1- D/8I1G *54F-1+25.A4; 656 5*=@,-1.G 2 3/8AC@ /7*5.1/=/ 3*-D4.528-1+; - / 2./*+91/4.+ 4/C151+; 3/ /.1/<-1+H 6 45,/4/C151+H. G 1- 43/4/71G 6 45,/4/C151+H, 15:/D;4A 21- 4/C151+;, + 2 E./, C568H95-.4; D2@-D+14.2/ 4/C151+; + 45,/4/C151+;. +D+,/, 2/3*/4 / =852-14.2- 4/C151+; 15D 45,/4/C151+-, +8+ 45,/4/C151+; 15D 4/C151+-,, ,58/3*/D@6.+21G- D+46@44++ 3/ E./,@ 3/2/D@ /7@48/28-1G 8+<A 4@7R-6.+21/0 3*-D3/9.+.-8A1/4.AH +C7*511/0 +448-D/25.-8-, ./96+ C*-1+;.-9A +D-. / D2@: +448-D/25.-8A46+: 3/C+F+;: - 21-<1-0, /7*5?-11/0 6 B56.5, 34+:+9-46/0 I+C- 1+ 9-*-C /7R-6.+2+*/2511G- 2 4/C151++ B-1/,-1G, + 21@.*-11-0, 1-3/4*-D4.2-11/ 42;C511/0 4 +1.*/43-6.+21G, ,-./D/,. 56+, /7*5C/,, ,G /4.51/2+,4; 15 ./ID-4.2-11/4.+ 4/C151+; + 45,/- 4/C151+; 656 *521/3/8/I-11G: B@16F+0 3/C151+;, 6/./*/- +,--. D25 2-6./*5 - 2/21- (3*-D,-.1/- 4/C151+-) + 15 4-7; (45,/4/C151+-).

5 2./*/, 3851- 3*/78-,G 4//.1/<-1+; 4/C151+; + 45,/4/C151+; /4.5-.4; F-1.*58A15; +4:/D- 15; 65.-=/*+; . @I1/ /7*5.+.A 21+,51+- 15 ./, 9./ + 2 .*5D+F+/11/, 3/1+,51++ 4/C151+; 656 B-1/,-15, 785=/D5*; 6/./*/,@ 4.51/2+.4; 2/C,/I1G, /.8+95.A 4-7; /. /6*@I5H?-=/ ,+*5, + 2 3*-D4.528-1++ / 45,/4/C151++ 656 /7 /4/C151++ 4/74.2-11/=/ 3*+4@.4.2@-. 1-@4.*51+,5; +4-

48

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.528;-, 4/74.2-11/- 2+.58A1/- /.9@ID5-,G, 43/4/71/4.;, *544@ID5.A, 243/,+15.A, 4:-,- 4/74.2-11/=/ .-85 656 3*/+C2/D1/,@ ,G<8-1+;, 4/F+58A1G, */8;,, 4/F+@,@ + 24-,@ 9@24.2-11/ 2/43*+1+,5-,/,@ 21-<1-,@ ,+*@. *+ 4,-1- 2+.58A1G: +D-1.+B+65F+0 15 7/8-- =8@7+11G- .-8/ 21/2A 4.51/2+.4; /7R-6./, 1578HD-1+;[4].

49

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