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16. Reported speech: mixed types

Direct speech may consist of statement + question, question + command, command + statement, or all three together.

1. Normally each requires its own introductory verb:

I have left my watch at home. Can you tell me the time?’ he asked.

He said he had left his watch at home and asked me if I could tell him the time.

2. But sometimes, when the last clause is a statement which helps to explain the first, we can use as instead of a second introductory verb:

You’d better take an umbrella. It looks like rain,’ he said.

He advised me to take an umbrella as it looked like rain.

3. Sometimes the second introductory verb can be a participle:

‘Please, don’t drive too fast! The rain has just stopped and the roads are wet,’ she said.

She begged him not to drive too fast, reminding him that the rain had stopped some minutes before and the roads were/are wet.

Appendix 1

WAYS OF TRANSLATING RUSSIAN PARTICIPLES AND ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES

PARTICIPLES

Active Voice

бросающий.......……….....................................................................throwing

Мальчик, бросающий камни в пруд, мой брат.

The boy throwing stones into the pond is my brother.

бросавший……......................(simultaneity).……......………............throwing

Мальчики, бросавшие камни в пруд, громко смеялись.

The boys throwing stones into the pond were laughing loudly.

.………..........…….(priority)…....….. who threw (has thrown, had thrown, had been throwing)

Мальчик, броcавший камни в собаку, был наказан отцом.

The boy who had been throwing stones at the dog was punished by his father.

бросивший...........................................................who threw (has/had thrown)

Мальчик, бросивший камень в собаку, был наказан отцом.

The boy who had thrown a stone at the dog was punished by his father.

Passive Voice

бросаемый.....................(at present moment, period)………....being thrown

Камни, бросаемые мальчиками, падают в воду.

The stones being thrown by the boys are falling into the water.

.................……..(usually, regularly)……...................…..thrown

Камни, бросаемые в воду, идут ко дну.

Stones thrown into the water go to the bottom.

брошенный.............................................................………...............thrown

Камень, брошенный мальчиком, долетел до противоположного берега.

The stone thrown by the boy reached the opposite bank.

Reflexive Participles with Passive Meaning

строящийся...................(at present moment, period)……….......being built

Большой дом, строящийся на нашей улице, новая школа.

The large house being built in our street is a new school.

...……..............(usually, regularly).…...............................built

Здания, строящиеся в нашем городе каждый год, в основном многоэтажные дома.

The houses built in our city every year are mostly large blocks of flats.

строившийся……….............................................................................built

Он показал мне несколько домов, строившихся его компанией.

He showed me some houses built by his company.

................(at certain moment, period)…..which was being built

Мне понравился дом, строившийся на берегу реки.

I liked the house which was being built on the bank of the river.

ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE

бросая ...............................................................................................throwing

Мальчики стояли на берегу реки, бросая камни в воду.

The boys stood on the bank throwing stones into the water.

......………….....manner (in what way?)..............................by throwing

Мальчик мешал им ловить рыбу, бросая камни в воду.

The boy prevented them from fishing by throwing stones into the water.

бросив 1. cause …....................................................................having thrown

Бросив мяч в воду, он не смог достать его.

Having thrown the ball into the water, the boy couldn’t get it back.

2. time .............(succession of actions)……………..... (on) throwing

Бросив диск во второй раз он установил новый рекорд.

(On) throwing the discus a second time, he set a new record.

time...….....(an interval between actions) ........…… having thown, after throwing

Бросив последний камень в воду, он ушел домой.

He went home having thrown the last stone into the water.

3. attendantcircumstances………...................................…. throwing

Он побежал к мальчику, бросив ему мач.

He ran to the boy throwing him a ball.

4. manner.……….......(how?)........………........................... throwing

Он привлек внимание брата, бросив ему мяч.

He draw his brother’s attention throwing him a ball.

......... (how, in what way?)..……..........…….. by throwing

Он перестал играть с братом, бросив мяч через забор.

He stopped playing with his brother by throwing the ball over the fence.

PARTICIPLES AND ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES WITH THE NEGATIVE PARTICLE HE

не бросающий .....……...........................................................… not throwing

не брошенный............................................................................... not thrown

не бросая ..............…………………................not throwing; without throwing

Он шел, не хромая.

He walked without limping.

не бросив .............................................…………………...not having thrown; without throwing

Он вышел из комнаты, не сказав ни слова.

He left the room without saying a word.

Note:

Without is used when it is possible to say ‘без того, чтобы сказать, сообщить’, if it is impossible not should be used: Not having seen her for many years…

Table 1

Right-hand combinability of some verbs - V + {+ N } + prep + Ving

V+N+of+Ving

V + N + about + Ving

V+ N + to + Ving

V+N+for+ Ving

accuse smb

exasperate smb

remind smb

suspect smb, etc.

ask smb

mutter smth

question smb

say smth

tell smb/smth

accustom smb

attribute smth

give smth

limit oneself

reduce smth/smb

restrict oneself, etc.

blame smb

bless smb

criticize smb

excuse smb

forgive smb

give smth

honour smb

pardon smb

praise smb

punish smb

reprimand smb

reproach smb

respect smb

reward smb

scold smb

scorn smb

thank smb, etc.

V + N + on + Ving

V+N+from+ Ving

V + N + into + Ving

compliment smb

congratulate smb

pride oneself

spend smth. etc.

discourage smb

hinder smb

keep smb/smth

prevent smb

prohibit smb

protect smb/smth

rescue smb/smth

save smb

stop smb. etc.

bribe smb

coax smb

deceive oneself/smb

frighten smb

hypnotize smb

invite smb

persuade smb

pester smb

talk smb

trap smb

trick smb. etc.

V + N + with + Ving

amuse smb charge smb, etc.

V + N + in + Ving

V+N+by+ Ving

V + N + out of + Ving

V + prep + N + prep + Ving

waste smb's time, etc.

amuse oneself

oblige smb, etc.

argue smb

make an occupation

talk smb, etc.

apologize to smb for

come to smb for

co-operate with smb in

laugh at smb for, etc.

V + N + against + Ving

warn smb

insure smb, etc.

NOTE: 1. In these patterns the Gerund functions as prepositional object.

2. The gerundial construction is not possible because the noun is the doer of the action.

Table 2

Right-hand combinability of some adjectives – A + prep + Ving

A+of+ Ving

A+about+Ving

A + at+ Ving

A+in+Ving

A+for+ Ving

A+to+ Ving

afraid

angry

angry

busy

convenient

(un) accustomed

ashamed

careful

annoyed

careless

eminent

averse

aware

concerned

astonished

experienced

famous

close

(in)capable

doubtful

bad

expert

favourable

opposed

certain

excited

brilliant

fortunate

fit

preparatory

confident

happy

clever

happy

notorious

reluctant

conscious

hesitant

clumsy

interested

remarkable

subsequent

fond

hopeful

delighted

justified

responsible

used, etc.

guilty

mad

disappointed

late

sorry

hard

sad

excited

mistaken

thankful, etc.

hopeful

sensible

expert

occupied

proud

thrilled

good

patient

quick

worried, etc.

gratified

ready

shy

hopeless

skilful

A+on+ Ving

A+from+ Ving

sick

indignant

slow

sure

A+with+ Ving

Pleased

successful

dependent

different

tired

Prompt

temperate

determined

exempt, etc.

weary

worthy, etc.

Acquainted content (ed)

quick relieved

wise, etc.

insistent intent

heavy

shocked :

keen

red

stupid

mad, etc.

satisfied, etc.

surprised, etc.

Table 3

Right-hand combinability of some nouns N+of+Ving

accident

end

knack

reputation "

accuracy

enjoyment

labour

result

action

enterprise

lecture

reward

(dis)advantage

evidence

lightness

risk

adventure

evil

limit

ritual

aim

exhilaration

love

role

air

expenditure

luck

routine

appearance art

expence

experience

luxury

madness

rule

satisfaction

attitude

fact

magnificence

savour

burden

fascination

manner

scruple

business

fate

means

sensation

capacity

favour

medium

sense

carelessness

fear

memory

shame

case

feeling

merit

shock

challenge

flavour

method

sight

hance

fuss

misery -

sign

charge

game

misfortune

signal

charm

genius

mistake

sin

choice

gesture

moment

slavery

(dis)comfort

gift

motion

sorrow

comment

grief

movement

sort

comparison

guilt

necessity

speciality

complication

habit

noise

sport

conception

hell

notion

stage

consequence

honour

object

standard

consideration

hope

opinion

state

consolation

hopelessness

opportunity

strain

(inconvenience

horror

pain

subject

cost

humiliation

participation

success

custom

idea

pity

support

danger

ignorance

platitude

surprise

day

illusion

pleasure

symptom

defence

impertinence

policy

talent

delay

importance

possibility

talk

delight

impression

power

task

desirability

incident

practice

terror

destiny

initiative

precaution

thought

difficulty

instant

pretence

torment ;

(in)dignity

instinct

pride

trick

disappointment

intention

privilege

trouble

disease

interest

process

use

disgrace

interference

proof

verge

dislike

dreariness

effect

embarrassment

intimacy

issue

job

joke

prospect

purpose

question

rapture

virtue

way

week

wisdom

emotion

joy

relief

work, etc.

NOTE: In this pattern the Gerund functions as attribute.

Table 4

Right-hand combinability of some nouns - N + prep + Ving

N + for + Ving

N + in+ Ving

N + at + Ving

capacity

advantage

amazement

cause

amusement

annoyance

excuse

belief

astonishment

genius

believer

attempt

gift

difficulty

chance

grounds

experience

delight

liking

harm

dismay

mania

hesitation

effort

motive

ingenuity

embarrassment

opportunity

interest

excitement

passion

meaning

expert

preference

object

hand

pretext

participation

irritation

propensity

pleasure

pleasure

reason

point

practice

regret

purpose

pride

reputation

sense

proficiency

talent

skill

regret

taste

success

relief

time, etc.

tact

satisfaction

time

shyness

use, etc.

surprise, etc.

N + to + Ving

N + about + Ving

alternative

doubt

liking

fantasy

means

obsession

objection

scruples, etc.

preparation

tendency, etc.

NOTE: In these patterns the Gerund functions as attribute.