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16. Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction

The infinitive in this construction is always preceded by to and follows a number of verbs. The infinitive is used in its all six forms but note that Simple Infinitive expresses the same and Perfect Infinitive the previous tense as compared with the finite verb:

He is known to work hard.

He was known to work hard.

They are reported to have arrived. They were reported to have arrived.

A. The ‘Nominative-with-the-infinitive’ construction is used:

1. after the following verbs in the passiveassume, announce, believe, claim, consider, estimate, expect, feel, find, hear, know, report, say, see, state, think, understand and others:

He is heard to be hiding in the woods.

This manuscript is estimated to be 1,000 years old. She was seen to have left the house.

2. after suppose. In the passive suppose can be followed by the simple infinitive of any verb but the construction usually conveys the idea of duty and is not therefore the normal equivalent of suppose in the active:

You are supposed to know how to drive

= It is your duty to know/You should know… though He is supposed to be in Paris could mean either ‘He ought to be there’ or ‘People suppose he is there’.

Suppose in the passive can also be followed by the perfect infinitive. This construction may convey an idea of duty but very often does not:

You are supposed to have read the instructions.

= You should have read them. They are supposed to have discovered America

= People suppose that they discovered.

B. The ‘Nominative-with-the-infinitive’ construction is used:

1. after the following verbs in the activeappear, seem, prove, happen, chance

He seems to know English well. Кажется, он хорошо знает… The weather appears to be improving. Погода, по-видимому, улуч- шается.

She seemed to have forgotten her words. Она, казалось, забыла… He proved to be a good engineer. Он оказался хорошим инжи- нером. I happened to be there at that time. Случилось так, что я был там…(Я случайно был там…)

2. if the verbs seem and appear are followed by an adjective or by a noun with an adjective without to be they have the meaning to look (выглядеть, производить впечатление)

She seems tired. Она кажется (выглядит) усталой.

He seems ill. Он кажется (выглядит) больным. He appears a good teacher. Он кажется хорошим учителем.

(производит впечатление хорошего)

3. note the position of not in the sentence: He doesn't seem to know this. Он, кажется, не знает этого. He didn't prove to be a very good teacher. Он оказался не очень хо- рошим… He didn't happen to be there. Случилось так, что его не было там.

4. the verbs seem, appear, prove, happen can be used with modal verbs, most often with the verb may: This story may seem to be rather dull. Этот рассказ может показаться

This picture may prove to be the best. Эта картина может оказаться

They may happen to be at home. Может случиться, что они будут

C. The ‘Nominative-with-the-infinitive’ construction is used:

1. after adjectives likely, unlikely, certain, sure in combination with the link-verb to be. Simple infinitive very often refers the action to the future.

He is likely to know her address. Он, вероятно, знает ее адрес.

The goods are unlikely to be Маловероятно, что (Вряд ли) unloaded today. товары будут разгружены сегодня.

They are certain to come to . Они непременно придут на the party вечеринку.

He is sure to be asked about it. Его непременно спросят об этом.

2. note the position of not in sentences with likely and in sentences with certain and sure:

He is not likely to come today. Он, вероятно, не придет сегодня.

He is certain not to come to work. Он наверняка не придет на работу.

He is sure not to be asked about it. Его наверняка не спросят об этом.

17. For + Object + Infinitive

1. This structure is often used after certain adjectives:

a) Adjectives that express importance or urgency: (un) important, essential, vital, (un)necessary, pointless. The sentence is often introduced by It is.

It is essential for the classrooms to have plenty of light.

It’s pointless for three of us to go: one will be enough.

b. Adjectives that express frequency: common, normal, unusual, rare. The sentence is often introduced by It is.

Do you think it’s normal for a child to get so tired?

c. Adjectives that express personal reactions to the future: anxious, eager, delighted.

I’m anxious for the painting to be ready on time.

2. A for-structure is often used after too and enough.

It’s too heavy for you to lift.

I think it’s late enough for us to put Philip to bed.

3. The for-structure is used after certain nouns: plan, idea, suggestion.

Have you heard about the suggestion for Jack to go abroad?

His idea is for us to travel in two different cars.

4. The for-structure is used to express purpose.

We brought some toys for the children to play with.

(=We brought some toys so that the children could play with them.)

For the diet to work properly, you have to follow it very strictly.

5. This structure is not very common after verbs. It can be only used after arrange, suit, take (time) and the verbs with the preposition for: wait for, look for.

Can you arrange for the gold to be delivered on Monday?

When will it suit you for us to call?

It took twenty minutes for the smoke to clear.

We are waiting for the waiter to serve us.

18. for or of

We can use of after the adjectives describing the people’s behaviour: good, nice, kind, brave, honest, clever, silly, wrong, rude....

It’s kind of you to invite me.

It was clever of you to work out the answer.

Compare good of and good for:

It was good of you It was good for you

to go jogging with me. to go jogging with me.

(= it was a kind action) (=it was a healthy experience for you)