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Сети и телекоммуникации

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ijh^mdlb\ghklv \Zr_c jZ[hlu gZ \j_fy kbevgh kgbablky — fZeh dlh fh`_l ijhlb\hklhylv k_l_\uf qZjZf b wlbf ijb^_lky i_j_[he_lv qlh[u aZl_f jZ[hlZlv \ k_lb ihqlb g_ hl\e_dZykv ©Ihqlbª ihlhfm qlh bgnhjfZpby — \ha^mo k_lb b g_ ^urZlv _x beb ^urZlv hl a\hgdZ ^h a\hgdZ bf_y \hafh`ghklv \^uoZlv iheghc ]jm^vx g_ lZd-lh ijhklh Fgh]h]hehkb_ ex^_c kh \k_]h fbjZ h]jhfgu_ ojZgbebsZ bgnhjfZpbb g_\_jhylgZy [ukljhlZ b m^h[kl\h dhffmgbdZpbc ^Z`_ k\hy bklhjby fbnu b ebl_jZlmjZ — \k_ wlh K_lv

LZd dZd `_ bo kh_^bgblv"

@_eZgb_ wlh klZjh dZd kZf dhfivxl_jguc fbj KdZ`m g_ [hykv kh\jZlv qlh dZd lhevdh gZ k\_l ihy\beky \lhjhc \ fbj_ dhfivxl_j _]h kjZam `_ aZohl_eb kh_^bgblv k i_j\uf — ©b ihkfhlj_lv qlh ba wlh]h ihemqblkyªKh_^bgbeb \ kZfhf ^_e_ beb g_l — h lhf bklhjby mfZeqb\Z_l nZdl qlh k_cqZk \ k_lb h[t_^bg_gh [he__ iheh\bgu i_jkhgZevguo dhfivxl_jh\ Z g_ i_jkhgZevguo — lZd b \k_ B jZa m` ijh]j_kk l_ogbdb iha\hebe gZf k \Zfb bf_lv k\hc kh[kl\_gguc dhfivxl_j [ueh [u ]emih g_ \hkihevah\Zlvky wlbf gZ \kx dZlmrdm

Bklhjbq_kdb keh`behkv ^\Z ih^oh^Z d h[t_^bg_gbx dhfivxl_jh\ < ©dhfivxl_jgh_ kj_^g_\_dh\v_ª — 70-_ ]h^u

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(Local Area Networks, LANs).

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rbgu Z lZ fh`_l wlh]h ^Z`_ g_ aZf_qZlv kihdhcgh jZ[hlZy ih k\h_c ijh]jZff_ EhdZevgu_ k_lb — hkh[Zy l_fZ h[rbjgZy b bgl_j_kgZy gh wlZ dgb]Z ihk\ys_gZ \k_ `_ g_ bf

EhdZevgZy beb ]eh[ZevgZy"

?keb \u Z[khexlgh m\_j_gu qlh \Zf g_ aZohq_lky h[f_gb\Zlvky ^Zggufb gb k d_f djhf_ \Zrbo dhee_] b khljm^gbdh\ gh aZlh k gbfb \u kh[bjZ_l_kv aZgbfZlvky wlbf qZklh b ihfgh]m — lh]^Z kdhj__ \k_]h \Zf gm`gZ ehdZevgZy k_lv HgZ g_ ^Zkl ihljykZxs_]h hsms_gby©hdgZ \ fbjªgh aZlh ij_\jZlbl \Zrm nbjfm \ _^bgh_ p_eh_ b h[_ki_qbl ^jm]h_ g_ f_g__ ijbylgh_ qm\kl\h — dhee_dlb\gh]h l\hjq_kl\Z _^bgh]h bgnhjfZpbhggh]h ijhkljZgkl\Z

K_cqZk m`_ ljm^gh ij_^klZ\blv k_[_ kh\j_f_gguc hnbk beb nbjfm [_a ehdZevghc k_lb >ey k\yab `_ k \g_rgbf fbjhf fgh]bf \iheg_ o\ZlZ_l l_e_nhgZ b nZdkZ Gh ih^mfZcl_ — jZa\_ g_ aZ\hjZ`b\Z_l i_jki_dlb\Z aZieZlb\ hij_^_e_ggmx b kh\k_f g_[hevrmx kmffm ihemqblv ^hklmi d kh\_jr_ggh [_a^hgguf bklhqgbdZf bgnhjfZpbb" Ih kmlb ihke_ \uoh^Z \ ]eh[Zevgmx k_lv \Zrm bgnhjfZpbhggmx fhsghklv hij_^_ey_l_ m`_ \u kZfb

— hgZ [m^_l aZ\bk_lv ebrv hl lh]h kdhevdh \j_f_gb b kbe \u kfh`_l_ m^_- eblv jZ[hl_ \ k_lb

?s_ jZgvr_ \ dhgp_ r_klb^_kyluo ihy\beky ^jm]hc lbi k_l_c dhlhju_ ij_^gZagZq_gu ^ey k\yab ^hklZlhqgh m^Ze_gguo ^jm] hl ^jm]Z dhfivxl_jh\ b ihlhfm gZau\Zxlky ]eh[Zevgufb ohly l_jfbg g_ kh\k_f m^Zq_g — ^Ze_dh g_ dZ`^Zy©]eh[ZevgZyªk_lv ho\Zlu\Z_l \_kv fbj ?keb ehdZevgZy k_lv fh`_l [ulv k\hy \ dZ`^hc d\Zjlbj_ lh kms_kl\mxsb_ ]eh[Zevgu_ k_lb \ ijbgpbi_ fh`gh i_j_kqblZlv ohly b g_ gZ iZevpZo

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B _s_ h^gh ijbgpbibZevgh_ hlebqb_ — _keb \ ehdZevguo k_lyo dhfivxl_ju ihklhyggh©qm\kl\mxl ehdhlv ^jm] ^jm]Zªlh qlh[u ihh[sZlvky k m^Ze_gguf dhfivxl_jhf q_j_a ]eh[Zevgmx k_lv g_h[oh^bfh ijhba\_klb hij_^_e_ggu_ ^_ckl\by \uclb \ k_lv mdZaZlv dhhj^bgZlu k_l_\hc Z^j_k gm`gh]h dhfivxl_jZ ih^h`^Zlv ihdZ mklZgh\blky k\yav b l i

BlZd d k_j_^bg_ k_fb^_kyluo — \j_f_gb ihy\e_gby i_jkhgZevguo dhfivxl_jh\ — kms_kl\h\Zeh ^\Z ^h\hevgh jZaebqguo b \aZbfh^hihegyxsbo ih^oh^Z d h[t_^bg_gbx dhfivxl_jh\ B _keb ehdZevgu_ k_lb ^ey ID ihy\bebkv ihqlb kjZam lh ijbh[s_gb_ \k_o `_eZxsbo d ij_e_klyf K_lb k [hevrhc [md\u g_kdhevdh aZ^_j`Zehkv

>_eh \ lhf qlh ijheh`blv dZ[_ev \ ij_^_eZo hnbkZ agZqbl_evgh ijhs_ q_f ^h\_klb _]h ^Z`_ ^h khk_^g_]h ^hfZ g_

]h\hjy m` h khk_^g_f ]hjh^_ B jZamf__lky jy^h\hc ihevah\Zl_ev IBM PC g_ fh] Zj_g^h\Zlv ki_pbZevgmx ebgbx k\yab dZd wlh ^_eZeb \eZ^_evpu [hevrbo dhfivxl_jh\ ?^bgkl\_gguf ^hklmiguf _fm dZgZehf ohlv kdhevdh-gb[m^v ijb]h^guf ^ey pbnjh\hc k\yab [ueZ l_e_nhggZy jha_ldZ gZ kl_g_ _]h d\Zjlbju beb hnbkZ B hklZ\Zehkv wlh hdgh \ fbj g_aZ^_ckl\h\Zgguf Z` ^h gZqZeZ -o ]h^h\ dh]^Z Zf_jbdZgkdZy nbjfZ Hayes gZdhg_p-lh \uimklbeZ i_j\mx \ fbj_ ieZlm fh^_fZ ^ey IBM PC...

Hdgh \ fbj

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Ijb wlhf fh^_f \_^_l k_[y ^h\hevgh kZfhklhyl_evgh — kZf gZ[bjZ_l aZdZaZgguc ghf_j fh`_l ^ha\Zgb\Zlvky kgbfZ_l ljm[dm ijb a\hgd_ dhg_qgh \ wlhf _klv kfuke lhevdh _keb _fm a\hgbl ^jm]hc fh^_f Kh\j_f_ggu_ fh^_fu mf_xl d lhfm `_ ihkueZlv b ijbgbfZlv nZdku lZdb_ mkljhckl\Z gZau\Zxlky nZdk-fh^_fZfb Z g_dhlhju_ — ^Z`_ jZ[hlZlv \ j_`bf_ Z\lhhl\_lqbdZ ijhb]ju\Zy ijb a\hgd_ ijb\_lkl\b_ b aZibku\Zy ijbgylu_ ]hehkh\u_ khh[s_gby \ nZceu gZ ^bkd_ Bf_lv ^ey ih^dexq_gby fh^_fZ hl^_evguc ghf_j l_e_nhgZ kh\k_f g_ h[yaZl_evgh ohly b m^h[gh lZd dZd i_j_kuedZ nZceh\ hkh[_ggh [hevrbo ih l_e_nhgghc ebgbbhkh[_ggh iehohc k ihfhsvx fh^_fZ hkh[_ggh f_^e_ggh]h fh`_l aZgylv g_fZeh_ \j_fy

G_khfg_ggh fh^_f — \_ebdh_ bah[j_l_gb_ GZ fh^_fZo k_cqZk ^_j`blky hq_gv agZqbl_evgZy _keb g_ ih h[t_fm bgnhjfZpbb lh ih dhebq_kl\m ihevah\Zl_e_c qZklv fbjh\uo k_l_c Gh g_ [m^_f aZ[u\Zlv qlh fh^_f \ hij_^_e_gghf kfuke_ — dhfijhfbkk aZklZ\eyxsbc bkihevah\Zlv l_e_nhggmx ebgbx \ p_eyo ^ey dhlhjuo hgZ bagZqZevgh kh\k_f g_ [ueZ ij_^gZagZq_gZ \ijhq_f ©dhfivxl_jgh_ ijhbkoh`^_gb_ªfh^_fZ qZklbqgh h[eZ]hjZ`b\Z_l b l_e_nhggmx k\yav — ih djZcg_c f_j_ hrb[hd ijb i_j_kued_ nZceh\ fh^_f g_ ^himklbl dZdhc [u iehohc gb [ueZ keurbfhklv

D kh`Ze_gbx kebrdhf [hevrhc wnn_dlb\ghklb beb [ukljh^_ckl\by h`b^Zlv hl fh^_fZ g_ ijboh^blky DZd b ^jm]b_ i_jbn_jbcgu_ mkljhckl\Z fh^_f jZ[hlZ_l gZfgh]h f_^e_gg__ kZ-

fh]h dhfivxl_jZ B \k_ `_ b]jZ klhbl k\_q — imklv f_^e_ggh imklv kh kdjbihf gh fh^_f hldju\Z_l \Zf kZfh_ gZklhys__ hdgh \ fbj

>hk_l_\Zy wihoZ

<ijhq_f ihy\e_gb_ fh^_fh\ _s_ kh\k_f g_ hagZqZeh qlh ex[hc `_eZxsbc fh`_l l_i_jv bkke_^h\Zlv K_lv m k_[y ^hfZ — ohly [u ihlhfm qlh maeu ]eh[Zevguo k_l_c g_ ki_rbeb imkdZlv d k_[_ ihevah\Zl_e_c i_jkhgZevguo dhfivxl_jh\ \b^bfh kqblZy bo gb`_ k\h_]h ^hklhbgkl\Z Ihwlhfm [ukljh jZklms__ khh[s_kl\h \eZ^_evp_\ fh^_fh\ g_dhlhjh_ \j_fy \Zjbehkv \ kh[kl\_gghf khdm ihevah\Zl_eb h[f_gb\Zebkv nZceZfb hj]Zgbah\u\Zeb gZ k\hbo fZrbgZo h[s_^hklmigu_ ©we_dljhggu_ ^hkdb h[ty\e_gbcª Bulletin Board Systems, BBS b \hh[s_ jZ^h\Zebkv `bagb g_ kebrdhf aZ^mfu\Zykv h K_lb dhlhjZy kqblZeZkv lh]^Z ij_jh]Zlb\hc ebrv [hevrbo fZrbg

BBS qblZ_lky ©[b-[b-wkª ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc h[s_^hklmigmx [b[ebhl_dm jZaghh[jZaguo nZceh\ dm^Z ex[hc `_eZxsbc fh`_l \g_klb k\hc \deZ^ — _keb ih _]h fg_gbx hg [m^_l dhfm-lh bgl_j_k_g Ihfbfh ijh]jZff gZ BBS fh`gh gZclb \k_\hafh`gu_ l_dklu dhfivxl_jgu_ kijZ\hqgbdb ]jZnbq_kdb_ nZceu

djhf_ lh]h fh`gh aZ\_klb i_j_ibkdm k ^jm]bfb ihk_lbl_eyfb BBS beb k __ ohaybghf dhlhjh]h gZau\Zxl SysOp — SYStem Operator lh _klv kbkl_fguc hi_jZlhj beb ijhklh kbkhi DZd ijZ\beh \k_ wlh jZkiheZ]Z_lky gZ i_jkhgZevghf dhfivxl_j_ k fh^_fhf b ^hklZlhqgh [hevrbf `_kldbf ^bkdhf

>h ihke_^g_]h \j_f_gb BBS [ueb hkgh\guf dZgZehf jZkijhkljZg_gby [_kieZlguo freeware, public domain b mkeh\gh [_kieZlguo shareware ijh]jZff ^_fhgkljZpbhgguo \_jkbc dhff_jq_kdbo ijh^mdlh\ b]j dhfivxl_jgh]h nhevdehjZ b l i =eZ\gh_ ^hklhbgkl\h BBS — lh qlh ^ey k\yab k gbfb g_ gm`gh gbdZdhc k_lb djhf_ l_e_nhgghc ^hklZlhqgh bf_lv fh^_f b agZlv ghf_j ih dhlhjhfm \Zr fh^_f kfh`_l ^ha\hgblvky ^h BBS Gh \ lh `_ \j_fy wlh b ]eZ\guc bo g_^hklZlhd ba dhlhjh]h ijhbkl_dZxl \k_ ijhqb_

‡ h]jZgbq_gb_ \j_f_gb ^hklmiZ [hevrbgkl\h BBS bf_xl ebrv h^bg l_e_nhgguc ghf_j b _kl_kl\_ggh g_ fh]ml h[- kem`b\Zlv g_kdhevdbo ihevah\Zl_e_c h^gh\j_f_ggh

‡g_gZ^_`ghklv k\yab — b __ ^hjh]h\bagZ _keb BBS gZoh^blky \ ^jm]hf ]hjh^_

‡ g_m^h[gh_ \j_fy jZ[hlu fgh]b_ BBS hldjulu ^ey a\hgdh\ ebrv ih ghqZf beb gZ \uoh^guo lZd dZd ^g_f fZrbgZ [u\Z_l aZgylZ ^jm]bfb ^_eZfb

;hevrbgkl\h BBS — ^_lbsZ wglmabZklh\-ex[bl_e_c qZklh g_ bf_xsbo hl wlh]h gbdZdhc dhff_jq_kdhc \u]h^u Gh kms_kl\mxl lZd`_ klZgpbb ijbgZ^e_`Zsb_ nbjfZf dhlhju_ jZkijhkljZgyxl lZdbf h[jZahf j_deZfgmx bgnhjfZpbx ijh]jZffgu_ ijh^mdlu b hkms_kl\eyxl l_ogbq_kdmx ih^^_j`dm k\hbo deb_glh\ Wlb BBS_kl_kl\_ggh hgb jZ[hlZxl djm]ehkmlhqgh hjb_glbjh\Zgu bf_ggh gZ l_o m dh]h _klv fh^_f gh g_l `_eZgby k\yau\Zlvky k k_lyfb < ihke_^gb_ ]h^-^\Z \ijhq_f ^hklmi d k_lb Bgl_jg_l klZe gZklhevdh ^_r_\uf b jZkijhkljZg_gguf qlh [hevrbgkl\h nbjf ij_^ihqblZxl \f_klh BBS aZ\h^blv k_[_:::-k_j\_jZ — ih^jh[g__ kf klj

K_lv Nb^h FidoNet)

K_lv Nb^h — ex[bl_evkdZy g_dhff_jq_kdZy k_lv \hagbdrZy _s_ \ wihom jZa^_evgh]h kms_kl\h\Zgby i_jkhgZevguo dhfivxl_jh\ b ]eh[Zevguo k_l_c ?_ \hafh`ghklb h]jZgbq_gu we_dljhgghc ihqlhc b kbkl_fhc l_e_dhgn_j_gpbc I_jkhgZevguc dhfivxl_j ijbkh_^bgyykv d Nb^h ihemqZ_l k_l_\hc Z^j_k kgZ[`Z_lky lbih\hc dhffmgbdZpbhgghc ijh]jZffhc b bgnhjfZpb_c h k\hbo [eb`Zcrbo khk_^yo — qe_gZo Nb^h <eZ^_e_p `_ maeZ i_jbh^bq_kdb ij_^hklZ\ey_l fZrbgm kZfhc k_[_ qlh[u hgZ fh]eZ iha\hgblv k\hbf khk_^yf b h[f_gylvky k gbfb ihqlhc \ Z\lhfZlbq_kdhf j_`bf_ LZd hl dhfivxl_jZ d dhfivxl_jm ibkvfZ ^hklZ\eyxlky Z^j_kZlZf

G_kfhljy gZ gbadmx kdhjhklv ijhoh`^_gby ibk_f b g_^hklZlhqgmx gZ^_`ghklv k_lv Nb^h ihevam_lky hij_^_e_gghc ihimeyjghklvx \ lhf qbke_ b \ gZr_c kljZg_ Fgh]b_ maeu Nb^h ih kh\f_klbl_evkl\m jZ[hlZxl \ dZq_kl\_ BBS Ih^jh[g__ h[ wlhc k_lb kf \ ]e klj

<hafh`ghklb dhlhju_ ihy\ylky m \Zk kjZam ihke_ ijbh[j_l_gby fh^_fZ g_ h]jZgbqb\Zxlky i_j_kuedhc nZceh\ beb \bablZfb gZ BBS Kms_kl\mxl ijh]jZffu iha\heyxsb_ mijZ\eylv dhfivxl_jhf k ^jm]h]h dhfivxl_jZ \ j_`bf_ lZd gZau\Z_fh]h m^Ze_ggh]h dhgljhey klj LZd k\yaZ\rbkv ba ^hfZ k fZrbghc klhys_c \ \Zr_f hnbk_ \u kfh`_l_ g_ lhevdh h[f_gylvky k g_c nZceZfb gh b aZimklblv gZ g_c dZdmx-gb[m^v ijh]jZffm mijZ\eyy _x kh k\h_c deZ\bZlmju b gZ[ex^Zy j_amevlZlu __ jZ[hlu gZ k\h_f wdjZg_

<_ebdh_ h[t_^bg_gb_

L_f \j_f_g_f khh[s_kl\h \eZ^_evp_\ i_jkhgZevguo dhfivxl_jh\ k fh^_fZfb jhkeh hq_gv [ukljh b bo bgl_]jZpby \ gZklhysb_ ]eh[Zevgu_ k_lb klZeZ gZkmsghc g_h[oh^bfhklvx <kdhj_ fgh]b_ maeu K_lb gZ [hevrbo dhfivxl_jZo lZd`_ h[aZ\_ebkv fh^_fZfb

^ey k\yab k i_jkhgZevgufb dhfivxl_jZfb b gZqZeb ij_^hklZ\eylv \k_f `_eZxsbf k_l_\u_ mkem]b

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< ihke_^g__ \j_fy ihqlb \k_ k_l_\u_ dhfiZgbb ijh\Zc^_ju hl Zg]e provide i_j_reb gZ h[kem`b\Zgb_ deb_glh\ \ j_`bf_ online ©gZ ebgbbª Kha\hgb\rbkv k ijh\Zc^_jhf \u fh`_l_ hklZ\Zlvky gZ k\yab kdhev m]h^gh ^he]h kZfhklhyl_evgh iml_r_kl\my ih k_lb b h[sZykv k k_j\_jZfb m^Ze_ggufb dhfivxl_jZfb — maeZfb k_lb ih \k_fm fbjm ijbq_f aZijhr_ggZy bgnhjfZpby ihy\ey_lky gZ \Zr_f wdjZg_ ihqlb fhf_glZevgh

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Ihy\e_gb_ i_jkhgZevguo dhfivxl_jh\ hdZaZeh hq_gv kbevgh_ \ebygb_ gZ ]eh[Zevgu_ k_lb <h-i_j\uo wlh \ua\Zeh bo g_\_jhylguc dZq_kl\_gguc b dhebq_kl\_gguc jhkl — Bgl_jg_l k_cqZk jZkrbjy_lky kh kdhjhklvx dhlhjmx ljm^gh ^Z`_ \hh[jZablv ^ey klhev [hevrhc ]eh[Zevghc b keh`ghc kbkl_fu Ijbq_f [hevrZy qZklv wlh]h ijbjhklZ h[_ki_qb\Z_lky lZdbfb `_ dZd \u b y \eZ^_evpZfb i_jkhgZevgh]h dhfivxl_jZ b fh^_fZ

<lhjh_ ke_^kl\b_ jZa\blby bg^mkljbb ID — dhff_jpbZebaZpby ]eh[Zevguo k_l_c ?keb _s_ g_kdhevdh e_l gZaZ^ ih^Z\eyxs__ [hevrbgkl\h k_l_c ijbgZ^e_`Zeh mgb\_jkbl_lZAb nbgZgkbjh\Zehkv ]hkm^Zjkl\hf beb jZaebqgufb nhg^Zfb lh l_i_jv jhkl b^_l \ hkgh\ghf aZ kq_l dhff_jq_kdbo hj]ZgbaZpbc hjb_glbjh\Zgguo gZ l_o dlh ijb\ud ieZlblv aZ ihemqZ_fu_ mkem]b

DZdb_ [u\Zxl k_lb

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Kms_kl\mxl h^gZdh b ^jm]b_ k_lb — k_lb Z^j_kZpby \ dhlhjuo g_ ih^qbgy_lky aZdhgZf Bgl_jg_lZ :[hg_glu lZdbo k_l_c fh]ml g_ aZ^mfu\Zykv keZlv ibkvfZ lhevdh ihevah\Zl_eyf k\h_c `_ k_lb Qlh[u hlijZ\blv ibkvfh ba lZdhc k_lb \ Bgl_jg_l beb \ ^jm]mx g_-bgl_jg_lh\kdmx k_lv \Zf ijb^_lky hkh[uf h[jZahf ij_h[jZah\Zlv Z^j_k gZagZq_gbylhqg__ ]h\hjy \hkihevah\Zlvky rexahf kf klj BgnhjfZpby h g_dhlhjuo ba lZdbo k_l_c \dexqZy k\_^_gby h nhjfZl_ Z^j_kZ \ gbo ijb\_^_gZ \ ]e klj D wlhc `_ ]jmii_ hlghkylky b ex[bl_evkdb_ k_lb kZfuf ba\_klguf ij_^klZ\bl_e_f dhlhjuo y\ey_lky k_lv Nb^h kf \j_adm gZ klj

Bklhjbq_kdb ^_e_gb_ k_l_c gZ Bgl_jg_l b ©hklZevgu_ª k\yaZgh k ^jm]hc deZkkbnbdZpb_c k_l_c — gZ dhff_jq_kdb_ b g_dhff_jq_kdb_h[jZah\Zl_evgu_ Bgl_jg_l aZjh^b\rbcky dZd gZmqgZy b h[jZah\Zl_evgZy k_lv \k_]^Z hlebqZeky hldjulhklvx b ^_fhdjZlbqghklvx dhff_jq_kdb_ `_ k_l_\u_ kem`[u bagZqZevgh hjb_glbjh\Zggu_ gZ ©^_eh\uo ex^_cª k i_jkhgZevgufb dhfivxl_jZfb ^hklZlhqgh ^he]h ba khh[jZ`_gbc dhgdmj_gpbb g_ h[_ki_qb\Zeb kh\f_klbfhklb gb ^jm] k ^jm]hf gb k Bgl_jg_lhf < ihke_^gb_ ]h^-^\Z ba-aZ jhklZ ihimeyjghklb Bgl_jg_lZ lZdb_ aZdjulu_ k_lb i_j_`b\Zxl g_ emqrb_ \j_f_gZ — g_kfhljy gZ lh qlh [hevrbgkl\h ba gbo m`_ ^Z\gh hldjueb ^ey k\hbo ihevah\Zl_e_c iheghp_gguc ^hklmi \ Bgl_jg_l

DZe_c^hkdhi \hafh`ghkl_c

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<ijhq_f g_ [m^_f im]Zlvky Z ihkfhljbf \k_ `_ dZdb_ hkgh\gu_ \hafh`ghklb ^Zxl gZf ]eh[Zevgu_ k_lb

We_dljhggZy ihqlZ

Wlh — lh jZ^b q_]h fgh]b_ b klZgh\ylky ihevah\Zl_eyfb K_lb ;ukljZy ^hklZ\dZ qlh[u ^hklbqv ^Z`_ kZfh]h hl^Ze_ggh]h Z^j_kZlZ ibkvfm h[uqgh lj_[m_lky g_ [he__ — fbgml \hafh`ghklv jZkkuedb h^gh]h ibkvfZ fgh]bf Z^j_kZlZf \k_ ij_bfms_kl\Z dhfivxl_jghc ih^]hlh\db b h[jZ[hldb ibk_f gbadZy p_gZ b \ukhdZy gZ^_`ghklv — \k_ wlb ij_bfms_kl\Z ij_\jZlbeb we_dljhggmx ihqlm \ g_qlh [hevr__ q_f ijhklh aZf_gbl_ev ihqlu ©[mfZ`ghcª ?^bgkl\_gguc g_^hklZlhd — lh qlh ihdZ _s_ g_ m dZ`^h]h `bl_ey A_feb _klv k\hc we_dljhgguc Z^j_k IjZdlbdZ jZ[hlu k we_dljhgghc ihqlhc [m^_l ih^jh[gh jZkkfhlj_gZ \ ]e

L_e_dhgn_j_gpbb

L_e_dhgn_j_gpbb — aZf_qZl_evguc kihkh[ h[sZlvky k ex^vfb [ulv \ dmjk_ gh\hkl_c jZkijhkljZgylv j_deZfm kh[bjZlv bgnhjfZpbx hl^uoZlv b jZa\e_dZlvky L_e_dhgn_j_gpby ij_^klZ\- ey_l kh[hc k\h_h[jZagmx \k_ieZg_lgmx kl_g]Za_lm dm^Z dZ`^uc fh`_l \u\_kblv k\h_ kh[kl\_ggh_ h[jZs_gb_ jZafure_gb_ \hijhk j_iebdm b l ^ jZ\gh dZd b hagZdhfblvky k fg_gbyfb ^jm]bo ex^_c`b\msbo g_j_^dh gZ jZaguo dhglbg_glZo Kms_kl\m_l h]jhfgh_ dhebq_kl\h l_e_dhgn_j_gpbc gZ kZfu_ jZaghh[jZagu_ l_fu — [bag_k kihjl bkdmkkl\h jZa\e_q_gby ijh]jZffbjh\Zgb_ b fgh]h_ ^jm]h_ fZkrlZ[u \Zjvbjmxlky hl lmkh\db \ g_kdhevdh q_eh\_d ^h fgh]hlukyqguo rmfguo Zm^blhjbc ]^_ g_ lZd-lh ijhklh hlnbevljh\Zlv gm`gmx bgnhjfZpbx

Qlh fh`gh gZclb \ l_e_dhgn_j_gpbyo

Fgh]b_ ih^ibku\Zxlky gZ l_e_dhgn_j_gpbx ebrv aZl_f qlh[u aZ^Zlv iZjm \hijhkh\ h jZ[hl_ k dZdhc-eb[h ijh]jZffhc — dZd

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K ^jm]hc klhjhgu l_e_dhgn_j_gpbx fh`gh kjZ\gblv k `mjgZehf \ dhlhjhf g_ lhevdh h[f_gb\Zxlky fg_gbyfb b \i_qZle_gbyfb gh b im[ebdmxl k_jv_agmx bgnhjfZpbx ;hevrh_ qbkeh ih^ibkqbdh\ bf_xl jZaghh[jZagu_ ^Zc^`_klu b h[ahju ij_kku k\h^db gh\hkl_c hl bgnhjfZpbhgguo Z]_glkl\ [bag_k-ojhgbdZ [xee_l_gb b ijhqZy bgnhjfZpby ^ey jZkijhkljZg_gby dhlhjhc \_kvfZ m^h[_g f_oZgbaf we_dljhgguo dhgn_j_gpbc b kibkdh\ jZkkuedb kf gb`_

MqZklb_ \ l_e_dhgn_j_gpbyo ^ey ihevah\Zl_ey kRnline-^hklm-ihf k\h^blky d \bablm gZ hkh[uc k_j\_j ]^_ hg fh`_l ijhkfZljb\Zlv kibkdb aZ]heh\dh\ k\_`bo klZl_c qblZlv bo b hl\_qZlv gZ aZbgl_j_kh\Z\rb_ _]h khh[s_gby M^h[g__ b wdhghfg__ ijb wlhf ihevah\Zlvky ki_pbZevgufb ijh]jZffZfb iha\heyxsbfb [ukljh kdZqb\Zlv k k_j\_jZ \k_ khh[s_gby ba \u[jZgguo ]jmii Z ijhkfZljb\Zlv b hl\_qZlv gZ gbo m`_ ihke_ hldexq_gby hl k_lb Ihevah\Zl_eb k ihqlh\uf ^hklmihf h[uqgh ihemqZxl khh[s_gby ba l_e_dhgn_j_gpbc \f_kl_ k hklZevghc ihqlhc ohly ^ey gbo kms_kl\m_l lZd`_ \hafh`ghklv ihemqZlv ebrv kibkdb aZ]heh\dh\ khh[s_gbc aZdZau\Zy aZl_f hl^_evgh \u[jZggu_ klZlvb

Kibkdb jZkkuedb

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Hj]Zgbah\Z\ k ihfhsvx lhc `_ k_lb j_deZfm gh\h]h kibkdZ jZkkuedb _]h ohaybg fh`_l ihqb\Zlv gZ eZ\jZo — ^Zevr_ kbkl_fZ nmgdpbhgbjm_l kZfhklhyl_evgh AZbgl_j_kh\Zgguc ihevah\Zl_ev ihkeZ\ gZ dhfivxl_j h[kem`b\Zxsbc kibkhd ibkvfh kh ki_pbZevghc dhfZg^hc klZgh\blky ih^ibkqbdhf Ihke_ wlh]h hg [m^_l ihemqZlv \k_ khh[s_gby ihklmiZxsb_ gZ Z^j_k kibkdZ b kfh`_l kZf im[ebdh\Zlv k\hb klZlvb ihkueZy bo gZ wlhl Z^j_k

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WWW

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