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BiLIM Systems Ltd

- , . , 80, (812) 449-0770, (812) 449-0771, E-mail: info@bilim.com

Network Working Group

 

T. Socolofsky

Request for Comments:

1180

C. Kale

 

 

Spider Systems Limited

 

 

January 1991

TCP/IP

TCP/IP,

IP . Internet.

.

TCP/IP

1

 

1

1.

2

2. TCP/IP

2

2.1

 

2

2.2

 

2

2.3

 

2

2.4

 

3

2.5

IP !

4

2.6

" !

4

2.7

# ! !

4

2.8

$ !%?

4

3. Ethernet

4

3.1

&

5

4. ARP

5

4.1

' ARP

5

4.2

 

5

4.3

ARP Request/Response ( - )

5

4.4

( '

6

5. IP

6

5.1

% '

6

5.2

" % '

7

5.3

% ' IP

8

5.4

IP-

8

5.5

#

8

5.6

' IP-% '

9

5.7

% '

9

5.8

' % '

9

5.9

% '

9

5.10 ' % '

10

5.11 ) % ' !%

10

5.12 %

10

6. UDP

11

6.1

 

11

6.2

* !

11

7. TCP

11

8. (

12

 

+ ( TCP UDP?

12

 

* ( ?

12

8.1

TELNET

12

8.2

FTP

12

8.3

rsh

12

8.4

NFS

12

8.5

SNMP

12

8.6

X-Window

13

9. ! '

13

10. ,

13

11. RFC

13

12.

13

13. &

13

http://www.bilim.com

http://www.protocols.ru

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

RFC 1180

1.

TCP/IP.

, ISO/OSI.

, . , ,

, ! , ! TCP/IP. "

, .

! UNIX TCP/IP, ,

TCP/IP.

# , . $

, ! RFC.

! TCP/IP, .

2. TCP/IP

TCP/IP ! ! , TCP IP - ,

. $ UDP, ARP ICMP; - TELNET, FTP rcp. %

“ internet”. &, ! ! internet

internet.

2.1

' .

----------------------------

|

network applications |

|

 

 

 

|

|

... \ | /

..

\ | /

...|

|

-----

 

-----

|

|

|TCP|

 

|UDP|

|

|

-----

 

-----

|

|

\

 

/

|

|

--------

 

 

|

|

|

IP

|

|

|

----- -*------

 

|

|

|ARP|

|

 

|

|

-----

|

 

|

|

\

|

 

|

|

------

 

 

|

|

|ENET|

 

|

|

---@

--

 

|

----------

|

-----------------

 

 

 

|

 

 

 

----------------------

o

---------

 

 

" Ethernet

1. TCP/IP

$ ! !, ! .

!, ! ! , , . $ ! . "

!, ! . (

Ethernet; "o" ( , ). & "*" IP-

!, "@" - Ethernet (MAC- ). # , )

! .

2.2

* ) , , :

Ethernet ! (Ethernet frame)

Ethernet IP ! (IP packet);

IP UDP ! ! (UDP datagram);

, IP TCP, ! (TCP segment)

! ! .

# !

. RFC 1122 ( 1.3.3).

' , ! ! . +

, ! ! , .

, , Ethernet, IP, UDP, TCP,

.

2.3

, , . 1. ' , ! TCP (Transmission Control Protocol - ), ! TCP. '

, ! UDP (User Datagram Protocol - ),

UDP. FTP (File Transfer Protocol - )

http://www.bilim.com

2

http://www.protocols.ru

RFC 1180

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

TCP. FTP/TCP/IP/ENET. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol - ) UDP

SNMP/UDP/IP/ENET.

TCP, UDP Ethernet “n 1” (

). - “1 n” (

). 2.

1

2 3 ...

n

1

2 3

... n

 

\

|

/

|

\

| |

/

^

 

\ | |

/

|

 

\ | |

/

|

-------------

 

 

flow

----------------

 

 

flow

|multiplexer|

of

|de-multiplexer|

of

-------------

 

 

data

----------------

 

 

data

 

|

 

|

 

|

 

|

 

|

 

v

 

|

 

|

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

2.

 

Ethernet Ethernet , ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) IP (Internet Protocol). (ARP IP)

Ethernet.

IP, TCP UDP

IP.

! UDP, ,

, UDP. TCP

TCP.

" ,

#; ,

.

! TCP UDP, IP

.

$ , Ethernet,

% IP-#. & . 1

Ethernet. ' Ethernet Ethernet

.

& 4- IP. ( # IP. (

% .

) IP Ethernet.

2.4

* 3 #.

----------------------------

|

network applications

|

|

 

 

 

 

|

|

... \ | /

..

\ | / ...|

|

-----

 

-----

|

|

|TCP|

 

|UDP|

|

|

-----

 

-----

|

|

 

\

 

/

|

|

 

--------

 

 

|

|

 

|

IP

|

|

|

-----

-*----

*- -----

|

|

|ARP|

|

|

|ARP|

|

|

-----

|

|

-----

|

|

\

|

|

/

|

|

------

 

------

|

|

|ENET|

|ENET|

|

|

---@--

---@--

|

----------

 

|-------

 

|---------

 

 

 

|

 

|

 

 

 

|

---o---------------------------

 

 

 

|

 

Ethernet Cable 2

---------------

 

o----------

 

 

 

Ethernet Cable 1

3. TCP/IP Ethernet

+, # Ethernet 2 IP.

, , # # IP

- m n.

http://www.bilim.com

3

http://www.protocols.ru

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

 

 

 

 

 

RFC 1180

 

1

2

3 ...

 

 

n

1

2

3 ...

 

n

 

\

|

|

 

/

|

\

|

|

/

 

^

 

 

\ |

|

/

 

|

 

\ |

|

/

 

|

 

-------------

 

 

 

 

flow

----------------

 

 

 

 

flow

 

|multiplexer|

 

of

|de-multiplexer|

of

 

-------------

 

 

 

 

data

----------------

 

 

 

 

data

 

 

/ |

|

\

 

|

 

/ |

|

\

 

|

/

|

|

 

\

v

/

|

|

\

 

|

1

2

3 ...

 

 

m

1

2

3 ...

 

m

 

4. n m

. IP

, 4,

( , , ).

TCP UDP

\/

\/

--------------

| IP |

||

|

---

|

|

/ \

|

|

/

v |

--------------

/\

/\

data

data

comes in

goes out

here

here

5. IP (IP Forwarding)

IP (forwarding) IP. ,

IP, (IP-router).

, IP TCP UDP IP

. ! IPTCP UDP.

2.5 IP

IP Internet.

. !

. " IP IP- ,

. #

Internet. , $

IP, internet.

2.6

IP “ ” . % ,

(internet), IP. # ,

.

2.7

% , , “ .” % internet

, & . (generalpurpose - ) internet

. '

, . .

& .

2.8 ?

:

EthernetIP?

IP IP?

- ?

TCP UDP, - ?

?

( & , Ethernet.

3. Ethernet

' & Ethernet.

Ethernet (destination) (source), .

http://www.bilim.com

4

http://www.protocols.ru

RFC 1180

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

Ethernet 6 . Ethernet Ethernet,

“ ” . Ethernet

(broadcast) FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF ( ).

Ethernet CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense and Multiple Access with Collision Detection -

). ! CSMA/CD

( , ), ( )

. ! “ ” . ! ( )

( - collision), CSMA/CD. !

( ).

3.1

" Ethernet . # ,

.

, - ( ).

( ). $ -

, ( ).

% , . % ,

( ). & . ! - . ' ,

- , - .

( Ethernet), . -

, - ( , , ..........). $

, (&, , ........).

4. ARP

IP Ethernet- ?

! ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Ethernet IP- . ! IP Ethernet .

4.1 ARP

! ARP,

(IP Ethernet) . ! IP -> Ethernet ,

IPEthernet. (

ARP:

1 ARP

 

 

 

 

IP

Ethernet

223.1.2.108-00-39-00-2F-C3

223.1.2.308-00-5A-21-A7-22

223.1.2.408-00-10-99-AC-54

) IP 4 ( ), . * Ethernet

16- “-”.

' ARP , IP Ethernet (

& ). * IP , Ethernet

. IP-

& , Ethernet .

4.2

! ( , TELNET) TCP, &

TCP- IP- . IP- , TCP IP. + IP Ethernet, Ethernet-

& .

) Ethernet ARP.

4.3 ARP Request/Response ( - )

% ARP?

( ) .

$ ARP, :

1.! ARP Ethernet.

2., IP .

, Ethernet Ethernet ARP. ! &

Ethernet Type ( ) ARP ARP. !

http://www.bilim.com

5

http://www.protocols.ru

BiLiM Systems Ltd. RFC 1180

ARP : " IP- IP- , Ethernet- ." ARP

:

2 ARP

IP223.1.2.1

Ethernet- 08-00-39-00-2F-C3

IP223.1.2.2 Ethernet- < >

ARP IP . ,

, , EthernetARP. ARP : " , IP Ethernet ." ARP

/ :

3 ARP

IP223.1.2.2

Ethernet- 08-00-28-00-38-A9

IP223.1.2.1

Ethernet- 08-00-39-00-2F-C3

, . Ethernet Type Ethernet

ARP ARP. ! ARP IP Ethernet " ARP.

" :

4 ARP

IP

Ethernet

 

 

223.1.2.1

08-00-39-00-2F-C3

 

 

223.1.2.2

08-00-28-00-38-A9

 

 

223.1.2.3

08-00-5A-21-A7-22

 

 

223.1.2.4

08-00-10-99-AC-54

 

 

4.4

# "

. . 2 , IP . # $

(IP - Ethernet) Ethernet. %, " "

" 3, 4, 5 " :

1.ARP Ethernet.

2.& IP .

3.ARP " IP - Ethernet.

4.IP Ethernet " ARP.

5.Ethernet Ethernet.

" ARP IP . #

" ARP request/response IP .

" ARP ' Ethernet.

, ARP, " ARP

. IP, $ , IP.

# " IP ARP IP " ARP. (

TCP UDP. )

( - ) .

, " ARP .

5. IP

! IP " internet IP " ". ! IP

" IP. % "

" ", . " "

.

" " , .

* " " " ", " IP

".

5.1

# 6 3 - A, B C. TCP/IP,

1. + Ethernet Ethernet.

IP, ' Ethernet, .

http://www.bilim.com

6

http://www.protocols.ru

RFC 1180

 

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

A

B

C

 

|

|

|

 

--o------

o------

o--

Ethernet 1

IP network "development"

6. IP

A IP- B, IP IP- A ( )

Ethernet A. IP IP- B ( ) Ethernet B.

5 Ethernet IP B

 

 

 

 

 

 

IP

A

B

 

 

 

Ethernet

A

B

IP , Ethernet. IP

- ,

IP.

IP- B IP A, IP- (

) ! ( ).

A B (direct routing).

5.2

" 7 internet - Ethernet ( IP), IP-

( D). IP 4

IP Ethernet.

A

B

C

----D

----

E

F

G

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

--o------

o------

o------

o- |

-o------

o------

o

------o--

Ethernet 1

 

 

|

Ethernet 2

 

 

IP network "development"

|

IP network "accounting"

 

 

 

 

|

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

|

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

|

H

 

I

J

 

 

 

 

|

|

 

|

|

 

 

 

 

--o

-----o------

 

o------ --

o

 

 

 

 

Ethernet 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IP network "factory"

 

7. IP internet

" , D, TCP/IP, 1. D IP-

- 3 , , IP 3 Ethernet. D

TCP/IP, 3 ( ). D

3 ARP 3 Ethernet, IP - .

# (IP- ) Ethernet. # IP 7 - .

A IP B, . $

IP ! .

% D A ,

D E, D H ( IP).

A, , ,

IP, . A

D IP IP- . &

(indirect routing).

' IP ! IPTCP, UDP .

( A IP E, IP Ethernet A. %

IP E IP , , IP- A

D , Ethernet- D.

6 Ethernet IP ( D)

IP

A

E

 

 

 

Ethernet

A

D

IP D IP IP- , : "

," - IP E, .

http://www.bilim.com

7

http://www.protocols.ru

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

 

 

RFC 1180

 

 

 

7 Ethernet IP ( D)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IP

 

A

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethernet

 

D

E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

, IP - Ethernet

, .

internet .

IP .

, Ethernet

Ethernet.

5.3 IP

.

( ), IP.

IP, , IP

, .

.

IP, , IP

!. " ,

( . ). # .

5.4 IP-

$ IP- ! !, !

!. % 4- IP IP- , ! !

IP ( host number). !, 1, IP 223.1.2.1, - 223.1.2, ! - 1.

& ( ) , - . IP

! C, , (24 ) ! ,

- . ' 2,097,152 C,

2541 .

$ IP ! - NIC (Network Information Center). , !

Internet, NIC . "

! ! ! Internet, NIC.

NIC,

2.

5.5

( ! ! ! , .

! alpha 223.1.2.1.

, “ - ” ! (

hosts). ! , !

. ) ! . * ,

:

223.1.2.1alpha

223.1.2.2beta

223.1.2.3gamma

223.1.2.4delta

223.1.3.2epsilon

223.1.4.2iota

IP- , !.

hosts ! . ,

! delta , ! 3 IP.

! Delta ! ! IP. ) ! delta

IP , IP.

& ! IP. " 3 IP, networks :

223.1.2development

223.1.3accounting

223.1.4factory

IP, - .

* , ! alpha 1 development, ! beta -

2 . ! development.1 (alpha), development.2 (Beta) .

..

+ , ! delta:

223.1.2.4devnetrouter delta

223.1.3.1facnetrouter

223.1.4.1accnetrouter

1$ 0 255 !

. . .

 

2 ( . RFC 1918 ), - 192.168.0.0. . .

http://www.bilim.com

8

http://www.protocols.ru

RFC 1180 BiLiM Systems Ltd.

IP- . , - delta devnetrouter,

. delta , 3

 

IP.

 

! . "

, .

5.6 IP-

# IP , IP? $ IP

, , IP- .

% . & IP,

- direct/indirect ( / ), - IP- -

. & ' , IP.

( route. "

, IP .

5.7

) .

---------

 

 

---------

| alpha |

| beta

|

|

1

|

| 1

|

---------

 

 

---------

 

|

 

|

 

--------

o

---------------

o-

 

Ethernet 1

IP network "development"

8. IP-

% alpha :

8

 

 

direct/indirect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

development

direct

 

 

1

& ' ' UNIXnetstat -r.

.

( .

9

 

 

direct/indirect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

223.1.2

direct

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

5.8

Alpha IP beta. & IP IP alpha IP- - beta 223.1.2.2. $ IP IP

. ' .

* ' , '

1. % ARP Ethernet beta '

1.

+ IP, development, IP

. IP ,

Network not reachable ( ).

5.9

, .

http://www.bilim.com

9

http://www.protocols.ru

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

 

RFC 1180

---------

 

 

---------

---------

| alpha |

| delta |

|epsilon|

|

1

|

|1

2

3|

| 1

|

---------

 

 

---------

---------

 

|

 

|

|

|

|

 

--------

o

---------------

o- | -o----------------

o

--------

Ethernet 1

|

Ethernet 2

IP network "Development"

|

IP network "accounting"

 

|

 

 

 

|

--------

 

 

|

| iota |

 

|

| 1

|

 

|

--------

 

 

|

|

 

 

--o

--------o--------

 

 

 

Ethernet 3

 

 

 

IP network "factory"

9. IP

alpha :

10 Alpha

 

direct/indirect

 

 

 

 

 

 

development

direct

 

1

 

 

 

 

accounting

indirect

devnetrouter

1

 

 

 

 

factory

indirect

devnetrouter

1

.

11 Alpha

 

direct/indirect

 

 

 

 

 

 

223.1.2

direct

 

1

 

 

 

 

223.1.3

indirect

devnetrouter

1

 

 

 

 

223.1.4

indirect

devnetrouter

1

Alpha IPdelta,

development.

5.10

Alpha IP epsilon. IP IP alpha epsilon (223.1.3.2). IP IP (223.1.3)

. ! .

" , 223.1.3 # IPdevnetrouter.

IP Alpha # ARP IPdevnetrouter

IP $ 1. IP -

epsilon.

IP delta IP. ,

, IP.

IP Delta (223.1.3) :

 

 

 

 

12 Delta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

direct/indirect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

development

direct

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

accounting

direct

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

factory

direct

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

% $ .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13 Delta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

direct/indirect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

223.1.2

direct

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

223.1.3

direct

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

223.1.4

direct

 

2

 

% . IP IP epsilon

3. IP Ethernet epsilon.

IP epsilon IP, IP- ,

, # .

http://www.bilim.com

10

http://www.protocols.ru