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RFC 1180

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

5.11

IP .

. ( ) (next hop),

.

5.12

,

.

, .

! . ",

IPEthernet IP Ethernet.

. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) . #

. #

, .

IP- , IP- $ .

IP- . % hosts. &

$ . ! DNS (Domain Name System) $ .

6. UDP

UDP 2 , IP. '

. UDP NFS (Network File System - ) SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol - ).

UDP (datagram) (connectionless) .

UDP (end-to-end) UDP,

.

UDP , IP.

, - .

6.1

?

! UDP UDP, ( ). ,

( ), , , $ . !

.

", SNMP ( SNMP) 161. "

SNMP, UDP. " $

(well known) SNMP, , 161

UDP .

UDP, $ . ",

5 UDP, 5 UDP. ( .

UDP , , ) .

6.2

IP UDP, UDP. UDP-

UDP IP, UDP. *

, $ , . + UDP . * UDP

Ethernet, . ,

, .

* 0, ( $

) . &

UDP . * UDP ,

, UDP , .

7. TCP

TCP . TCP

, UDP. ,

TCP .

TCP , . , TCP,

FTP (File Transfer Protocol - ) TELNET. TCP X- Window, rcp (remote copy - ) r- . ( TCP

. , TCP

UDP.

http://www.bilim.com

11

http://www.protocols.ru

BiLiM Systems Ltd. RFC 1180

UDP TCP.

. , TELNET 23. TELNET ,

23 TCP.

TCP, TCP

( ). ! (virtual

circuit). " TCP. #

- .

TCP, $ ! .

TCP % , ! %. , 5

TCP, 10 ,

% . & ! %

.

TCP % (sliding window) - . '

( ! ). ' % .

% , TCP $ . ( ,

. ) TCP TCP,

.

8.

TCP UDP?

$ . *

. + , ,

. + , TCP. + , UDP . + $

, TCP ,

UDP. + ,

. , !, . + UDP,

. + TCP ,

% ! , % ! .

?

- .

internet ( , TELNET FTP), - ( , X-Windows SNMP).

.

8.1 TELNET

TELNET TCP. , ! -

. # telnet delta,

$ delta.

TELNET - $ . )

% TELNET ! . TELNET

VAX/VMS, UNIX System V.

8.2 FTP

FTP , TELNET, TCP. ( FTP TELNET

, , , ! ! (

).

8.3rsh

Remote shell (rsh remsh) “ ” UNIX ( , UNIX - cp

“ ” - rcp, who - rwho . .).

r* UNIX !

% (trusted) . ,

.

) cc file.c (! C) rsh delta cc file.c. ) file.c delta rcp file.c delta; delta

rlogin delta . .

8.4 NFS

- NFS, Sun Microsystems Inc, UDP,

UNIX . . ! ( $

!). . , % alpha, beta,

$ .

NFS % NFS

, % . NFS

UNIX, NFS .

http://www.bilim.com

12

http://www.protocols.ru

RFC 1180 BiLiM Systems Ltd.

8.5 SNMP

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol - ) UDP

. ,

. SNMP

! ! . SNMP !, !

.

8.6 X-Window

X Window ! TCP

! !. X Window , " - "

! .

9.

# " ! internet. #

, ! , " .

: arp, route, netstat

ARP: , , , (spoofing)

IP: !, ,

IP: , , ICMP

RIP,

! DNS

10.

[1] Comer, D., "Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, Protocols, and Architecture", Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, U.S.A., 1988.

[2] Feinler, E., et al, DDN Protocol Handbook, Volume 2 and 3, DDN Network Information Center, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Room EJ291, Menlow Park, California, U.S.A., 1985.

[3] Spider Systems, Ltd., "Packets and Protocols", Spider Systems Ltd., Stanwell Street, Edinburgh, U.K. EH6 5NG, 1990.

11. RFC

$ ; RFC.

12.

TCP/IP , . % "

, ! - ! .

# " , ! ,

(ARP-spoofing) “# ” RFC 11223.

13.

Theodore John Socolofsky

Spider Systems Limited Spider Park

Stanwell Street Edinburgh EH6 5NG United Kingdom

&:

' ( 031-554-9424 ' )*( 011-44-31-554-9424

Fax:

' ( 031-554-0649 ' )*( 011-44-31-554-0649

EMail: TEDS@SPIDER.CO.UK

Claudia Jeanne Kale

12 Gosford Place

Edinburgh EH6 4BJ United Kingdom

&:

' ( 031-554-7432 ' )*( 011-44-31-554-7432

EMail: CLAUDIAK@SPIDER.CO.UK

3% http://www.protocols.ru " . . .

http://www.bilim.com

13

http://www.protocols.ru

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

RFC 1180

BiLiM Systems Ltd.

-

(812) 449-0770 nmalykh@bilim.com

http://www.bilim.com

14

http://www.protocols.ru