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тема Civil engineering.doc
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Theme “civil engineering” Text 1

Words and word combinations to be remembered:

1. in a more extended sense

В более широком смысле

6.branch

Ветвь, отрасль

2.to apply

Применять

7.marine engineering

кораблестроение

3.to execute

выполнять

8.to sustain

Поддерживать

4.civil

Гражданский

9.the former…while the latter

Первый… тогда как последний

5.military

военный

Read the text carefully so as to be ready to discuss it:

Civil Engineering (I)

The term “engineering” is a modern one. The New Merriam-Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word “engineering” as the practical application of scientific and mathematical principles. Nowadays the term “engineering” means, as a rule, the art of designing, constructing, or using engines. But this word is now applied in a more extended sense. It is applied also to the art of executing such works as the objects of civil and military architecture, in which engines or other mechanical appliances are used. Engineering is divided into many branches. The most important of them are: civil, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, mining, military, marine, and sanitary engineering.

While the definition “civil engineering” dates back only two centuries, the profession of civil engineer is as old as civilized life. It started developing with the rise of ancient Rome. In order to understand clearly what civil engineering constitutes nowadays, let us consider briefly the development of different branches of engineering. Some form of building and utilization of the materials and forces of nature have always been necessary for the people from the prehistoric times. The people had to protect themselves against the elements and sustain themselves in the conflict with the nature.

First the word “civil engineering” was used to distinguish the work of the engineer with a non-military purpose from that of a military engineer. And up to about the middle of the 18th century there were two main branches of engineering – civil and military. The former included all those branches of the constructive art not directly connected with military operations and the constructions of fortifications, while the latter, military engineering, concerned itself with the applications of science and the utilization materials in the art of war.

Assignments:

  1. General understanding. Answer the questions:

  1. What does the word “engineering” mean?

  2. Is engineering a science?

  3. Into what branches is Civil Engineering divided?

  4. How old is the profession of a civil engineer?

  5. What are the most important branches of civil engineering?

  1. Give Russian equivalents for the following international words:

Start, mechanism, principle, architecture, energy, material, form, construction, element, mechanics, economics, mathematics, thermodynamics, communication, utilization, application, general.

  1. Translate into English:

Термин строительство, гражданский, защищаться от, доисторические времена, до середины восемнадцатого века, впервые, означать, в наши дни, цивилизованная жизнь, военный инженер, делиться на.

  1. Make the plural form of the following words:

Branch, tooth, service, century, key, hero, ox, opportunity, engineer, ship, man, earning, country, roof, sheep, business, town, structure, deer, woman, leaf, people, safe, mouse, engine, salary, force, meaning, discovery, axis, advice, foot, phenomenon.

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