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Review seminar questions:

  1. The origin of Kievan Rus’.

  2. Theories of the origin of Kievan Rus’.

  3. What does the veche mean?

  4. Who was Princess Olga and what she does she provide?

  5. The reason and consequences and of Kievan Rus’s christianization.

  6. What was the competence of Grand Prince?

  7. What does posadnichestvo mean?

  8. The legal status of boyars.

  9. The main sources of slaves.

  10. Sources of law in Kievan Rus’.

  11. The characteristic of agreements between Rus’ and Bizantium.

  12. The sources of church law in Kievan Rus’ and its characteristic.

  13. What mean the wholesale pillage?

  14. The definition of crime in Kievan Rus’.

  15. What the wergild mean?

  16. What kinds of crimes and punishments were in Kievan Rus’ according to RP?

  17. What types of courts existed in Kievan Rus’?

  18. The main features of judicial process in Kievan Rus’.

  19. What were the main reasons of feudal fragmentation of Kievan Rus’?

  20. The main features of Novgorod’s system of Government.

  21. The role of veche in Novgorod republic.

  22. Formes of hereditary estates according to Pskov Judicial Charter.

  23. Kinds of contracts according to Pskov Judicial Charter.

  24. The goals of criminal law punishments.

  25. The main features of judicial process according to according to Novgorod Judicial Charter.

  26. Prerequisites of formation of centralized Russian state.

  27. The characteristic of central government in Moscow State.

  28. The characteristic of Chancellery system.

  29. Local government administration in XV century.

  30. Changes in system of local government administration in XVI-XVII centuries.

  31. Characteristic of the Muscovite Sudebniki.

  32. Kinds of crimes and punishments according to Sudebniki.

  33. Court system according to Sudebniki.

  34. The main features of the Law Code 1497.

  35. Class reforms of Peter I.

  36. Characteristic of the Decree on Single Inheritance.

  37. The letters patent to the nobility.

  38. Legal position of peasants in XVIII – XIX centuries.

  39. Characteristic of the military reform of Peter I.

  40. Monetary reform of Peter I

  41. Religion reform of Peter I.

  42. Education reform of Peter I

  43. What does the enlightenment absolutism mean?

  44. The main features of civil law in XVIII century.

  45. The main features of family law in XVIII century.

  46. Preconditions of providing reforms in Russia Empire.

  47. Peasant reform of Alexander II and its importance.

  48. Judicial reform and establishing new system of courts.

  49. Military reform of 1874.

  50. Educational reform of XIX century.

  51. Counter-reforms of Alexander III and its consequences.

  52. War and revolution 1904-1905.

  53. Changing of the government and collapse of the Empire.

Glossary

blizhnye close relatives

bratochado nephew (son of one’s brother)

cheliadin (dependent) member of household, such as child or serf (compare Latin filius)

chern’ the common people (esp. in Novgorod); also chernye liudi (“black people”)

chiliarch “thousandman” (Greek), see tysiatskii

dan’ tribute (lit. “gift”)

Drevneishaia Pravda “Oldest Pravda”, also “Pravda of Iaroslav”, oldest segment of Russkaia Pravda

golovnichestvo “head money”, to be paid by killer and his relatives

gosudar’ Lord, sovereign, majesty

gradskie zakony “city laws”, Russian term referring esp. to Ecloga and Procheiron

grivna basic monetary unit in Kievan Russia; pound

iabetnik court official, bailiff

iarlyk (Turkic) in medieval Russia: charter issued by Mongol-Tatar ruler

iuridicus law-sayer (Latin)

izgoi persons who found themselves outside the ordinary social units of family, clan, druzhina, etc.

izvod version of manuscript, recension; also (in Russkaia Pravda): type of procedure

kholopy slaves

kniaz’ prince (etymologically related to “king”); also translated as “duke”

Knigi Zakonnye “Law Books”, Russian collection, of Byzantine origin, of which the Nomos Georgikos is the main component

koniukh staryi senior stablemaster

kormchaia Russian version of the Nomocanon

kormilets, kormilitsa slaves or unfree persons (male/female), entrusted with care of children

kramola sedition, rebellion, treason

krazha theft

krestnoe tselovanie “kissing the Cross”; standard form of oath in medieval Russia

kuna Old Russian monetary unit

mechnik “sword-bearer”, court official, guard

Merilo Pravednoe “Just Measure”, medieval Russian legal collection

mestnichestvo appointment system in Muscovy Russia

mesto place or rank within family and among families (see mestnichestvo)

mir village community; peace (treaty)

modus vivendi intermediate arrangement between opponents

Naturalwirtschaft (German) economy in which money plays a secondary role

nomocanon (Greek) Byzantine collection of ecclesiastical and secular rules

novellae new laws, in particular as fourth part of the Corpus Iuris Civilis

ognishchanin “hearth-man”, steward or other high official of the prince in Kievan times

Ordá Horde (Turkic), division of Mongol empire

otchina paternal heritage, patrimony (also votchina)

poinè wergeld, blood money (Homeric Greek)

pokon law, statute

pokon virnyi law concerning the vira

poliud’e winter circuit of the prince, in which tribute was collected

posadnik lieutenant (of prince); mayor (in Novgorod)

posadskie liudi half-free townspeople in Muscovy Russia

potklete storehouse (Novgorod Skra)

Pravda Iaroslavichei the Pravda of Iaroslav’s sons

pravovoe gosudarstvo law-governed state (translation of German Rechtsstaat)

Pravosudie metropolich’e Metropolitan’s Justice (medieval Russian legal collection)

prigorod “suburb”, subordinate town

proezzhaia gramota a laissez-passer, a document entitling the bearer to proezd (travelling through)

Razriadnyi Prikaz government department in charge of keeping razriady

razriad(y) mestnichestvo register

rezana monetary unit in Kievan Russia

riad(y) contract, pact

rota oath (in court procedure)

Russkaia Pravda “Russian Law”, basic legislative monument of Kievan Russia

russkie stati “Russian articles”, a series of provisions from the Zakon

Sudnyi Liudem, found in some copies of the Russkaia Pravda

schevenisse kind of fur (Novgorod Skra)

sel’skii starosta agricultural official of the prince, field overseer

smerdy dependent peasants

Sovet Gospod Council of Lords (in Novgorod)

starshinstvo seniority (esp. among Russian princes)

sudebnik law code

svod court procedure (in Russkaia Pravda); collection

tat’ba theft

tiun also tivun, tivunets; princely official, overseer, agent, steward,bailiff

troynisse kind of fur (Novgorod Skra)

tsar’ tsar (from Latin caesar), emperor (the spelling “czar” does not make sense in any language); the tsar’s wife is the tsaritsa (translated into German as Zarin, which was then corrupted in several European languages as “tsarina” or “czarina”)

tysiatskii “thousandman”, military commander (in Novgorod)

udel portion or part (assigned to younger sons of princes)

udel’nye kniazhestva apanage principalities (from udel)

uroki laws, decrees

ustav statute

veche popular (urban) assembly

verkhovnaia sobstvennost’ “supreme ownership”, roughly equivalent to “eminent domain”

verv’ rural territorial unit

vira bloodwite, fine for homicide or bodily harm

virnik collector of the vira

voevoda military commander, general

volost’ governmental power; also “province” (esp. in Novgorod)

votchina see otchina

wergeld compensation to be paid by the killer to the killed person’s relatives

zakon russkii “Russian Law”, the customary law of pre-Christian Russia

Zemskii Sobor Land Council

zhit’i liudi prominent burghers (esp. in Novgorod), also zhitye liudi, as opposed to lower class burghers (chernye liudi)

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