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methodological manual History of state and law...docx
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  1. Education reform

Education also had to be modernized if Russia was going to survive as a power in Europe. Peter wanted a modern army and navy that would be feared throughout Europe. The officers in the military had to be educated or this would never be achieved. While on his travels as a youth, Peter had seen the importance of the knowledge of science and maths for military success. The correct use of artillery needed knowledge of angles; the building of fortifications needed knowledge of engineering. Naval officers needed to know how to navigate.

In addition, Peter decided that all of the children of the nobility should have some early education, especially in the areas of sciences. Therefore, on February 28th 1714, he introduced the decree on compulsory education which dictated that all Russian children of the nobility, of government clerks and even lesser ranked officials between the ages of 10 and 15 must learn basic mathematics and geometry and that they should be tested on it at the end of their studies.

In 1701, the School of Navigation and Maths was founded in Moscow. This was run by British teachers. In the same year, similar schools were created for artillery and languages. In 1707, a School of Medicine was created and in 1712 a School of Engineering. Thirty maths schools were created in the provinces and in 1724; a School of Science was established though the lack of scientists in Russia meant that it had to be initially staffed by foreigners. Many young noblemen were encouraged to do as Peter had done - go to Western Europe and experience what it was like and also learn. They were encouraged to learn about the latest technology, economic theory and political science. He believed that these young educated noblemen were of great benefit to Russia's development [5, 457].

  1. Culture reform

Peter I ordered to all his boyars to cut their beards. Then he applied the same law to all the men in the kingdom, except the clergy (Decree on Shaving, 1705). For those who refused, the tzar fixed a fee. (Appendix 9) He also decided upon the clothes that the Russians were to wear (the Decree on Western Dress, 1701), inspiring from the French, Saxon, or German fashion; another fee was fixed for those who would not obey. People complained that the new clothing style was not suitable for the harsh weather in Russia.

Another major change would come with the reformation of the calendar. He didn’t go as far as changing to the Gregorian calendar, because it was the one used in Rome, and it was not appropriate for a Christian Orthodox country like Russia; however, he adopted the Julian calendar, which had a delay of 11 days (the change to the Gregorian calendar will only take place on February 1st, 1918, by the USSR government). So he decided that on January 1st, 1700, people should ornate the gates of their houses and take part at the Church masses. The population was more confused than troubled.

A newspaper the "Vedomosti" was established for the educated public in 1703. In this year the new alphabet was created. It was issued by the state. Peter believed that military leaders had to be educated but that a loyal public should also be if Russia was to shake off its reputation of being steeped in medievalism [7].

On February 28th 1714, Peter the Great introduced the decree on compulsory education. In 1701, the School of Navigation and Maths was founded in Moscow. In 1707, a School of Medicine was created and in 1712 a School of Engineering. Thirty maths schools were created. Peter did many useful things for the culture of his country.

He ordered to all his boyars to cut their beards. He also changed the type of clothes of the Russians. For the educated Public a newspaper “Vedomosti” was established. In the year 1703 the new alphabet was created. The major change came with the reformation of the calendar, when he adopted the Julian calendar.

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