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§ 13. The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses:

a) after expressions of wish in the principal clause. If the action expressed in the object clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Indefinite of the Indicative Mood. This is formal and has the effect of making a wish more doubtful:

I wish Tessa were here now.

I wish we were all as young as he (Galsworthy)

Жаль, что мы все не так молоды, как он.

I wish it were all over.

Как бы мне хотелось, чтобы все это кончилось.

I wish she felt as I do. (E. Bronte)

Я бы хотела, чтобы она чувствовал то же, что и я.

Не wished he had someone to talk to ... (Wilson)

Он хотел, чтобы у него был кто-нибудь, с кем можно

было бы поговорить.

If the action expressed in the object clause is prior to that of the principal clause the Past Perfect of the Indicative Mood is used.

Auntie, I wish I had not done it. (Twain)

Тетя, мне очень жаль, что я это сделал.

I wish you hadn’t put yourself to so much trouble.

Жаль, что вы причинили себе столько беспокойства.

The above examples show that such sentences are often translated by means of как жаль, мне жаль.

The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary would (for all persons) is also used in object clauses after the verb to wish. This form is used only in sentences referring to the present or future; it is possible only if the subject of the principal clause is not the same as the subject of the object clause. It is chiefly used in sentences expressing request or annoyance.

I wish you would stay with me for a while. (Voynich)

Я бы хотел, чтобы вы побыли немного со мной.

I wish you would not talk like this, papa. (Conrad)

Я бы хотела, чтобы вы не говорили так, папа.

We must use could and not would after I and We:

I wish I could be you.

I wish we could be together.

I wish I could swim.

I wish I could have been with you.

Would expresses willingness; could expresses ability:

I wish he would come tomorrow, (i.e. I don't know if he wants to)

I wish he could come tomorrow, (i.e. I'm sure he can't)

I wish Tessa could have come to my party, (i.e. she wasn't able to)

b) The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses introduced by the conjunction lest if in the principal clause the predicate is expressed by a verb denoting fear. The mood auxiliary should is used for all persons.

Dr. Brown was afraid lest Margaret should think the house bare and cheerless. (Gaskell)

Не trembled lest his secret should be discovered.

Он дрожал при мысли, что его тайна будет раскрыта.

I dreaded lest any stranger should notice me and speak

to me. (Eliot)

Я боялась, что какой-нибудь незнакомый человек заметит меня и заговорит со мной.

After verbs denoting fear object clauses are often introduced by the conjunction that, in which case the Indicative Mood is used, often with the modal verb may (might).

Pick up your spectacles. I’m afraid that someone may step on them.

She fears (feared) that she will (would) be blamed.

She fears (feared) that she may (might) be blamed.

c) The Subjunctive Mood is used in object clauses after expressions of order, recommendation or suggestion, advice, desire in the principal clause (to order, to suggest, to propose to demand, to desire, to insist, to be anxious, to see to it). The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should (for all persons) is used.

Arnie called him at the lab, suggesting that they should get together and talk things over. (Wilson)

In American English we often find the Present Subjunctive in this case.

... she insisted that they open a bottle of wine and toast his

success. (Stone)

Она настаивала, чтобы они откупорили бутылку вина и выпили за его успех.

§ 14. The Subjunctive Mood is used in attributive appositive clauses modifying the nouns wish, suggestion, aim, idea, etc. The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should (for all persons) is used.

Orders were given that we should start at nine.

A resolution was passed that all should take part in the work.

His wish that everybody should take part in the work was reasonable.

§ 15. The Subjunctive Mood is also used in attributive clauses modifying the noun time in the principal clause: It is time, It is high time. In this case the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be is used; with other verbs the same meaning is expressed by the Past Indefinite of the Indicative Mood.

It’s time we got out. (Cusack)

Нам пора выбираться.

Clearly, it’s time someone gave you a bit of advice. (Snow)

Ясное дело, пора кому-нибудь дать тебе совет.

I suppose it’s time I made up my mind. (Snow)

Я полагаю, мне пора принять решение.

Now then, children. It's high time you were washed and

dressed. (Mansfield)

Ну, дети, давно пора умываться и одеваться.

The analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should is also possible, though less common.

It is high time that you should be known. (Cronin)

Давно пора, чтобы тебя узнали.

§ 16. Should may have a peculiar function– it may be used for emotional colouring. We call it the emotional should. Here we always find the analytical subjunctive with the mood auxiliary should+ Indefinite Infinitive (if the actions are simultaneous). If priority is expressed the Perfect Infinitive is used.

In this case the Subjunctive Mood is rendered in Russian by the Indicative Mood.

The emotional should occurs in different kinds of subordinate clauses. We find the emotional should in the following cases:

a) In object clauses after expressions of astonishment, incredulity, regret, joy, surprise:

It is strange I should never have heard him even mention

your name. (Austen)

Странно, что я никогда даже не слышала, чтобы он упоминал ваше имя. .

It is impossible that she should have said it.

He может быть (невозможно), чтобы она это сказала (не могла она это сказать).

He was little surprised that Ann should speak so frankly about it.

I am sorry that you should think so badly of me.

It is absurd that such things should happen to a family like theirs.

In the principal clause we can also find such expression as it is wonderful (natural, singular, terrible, monstrous, odd); it infuriated (outraged, startled, surprised, puzzled) me; it struck me as funny, etc.

b) Sometimes the same attitude may be expressed in the principal clause by a noun with the same meaning: wonder, pity, shame, etc.

He is such a charming man that it is quite a pity he should be so grave and so dull. (Austen)

Он такой чудесный человек; как жаль, что он такой серьезный и скучный.

c) The Subjunctive Mood with the emotional should may also occur:

1. In rhetorical questions beginning with why:

Why should you and I talk about it? (Dickens)

К чему нам с вами говорить об этом?

Why should I do it?

С какой стати я буду делать это?

2. In constructions of the following kind:

The door opened and who should come in but Tom.

Дверь открылась, и кто бы вы думали вошел? Не кто иной

как Том.

That it should come to this! To think that it should come to this!

И до чего дошло дело! Подумать только, до чего дошло дело!

In sentences of this kind the Indicative Mood is also possible.

Oh! It is strange he never mentioned to me that he had a ward.

It is only wonderful we have seen no living creature there before.

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