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Питання для самоконтролю:

  1. Do you protect your data from people inside the organization? How do you do it?

  2. Must personnel who use computers be carefully screened? Why?

  3. Are passwords an old means that still work for limiting access?

  4. For what aims are passwords designed for?

  5. Is fier a danger for a computer?

  6. What can be done to protect a computer from fier?

Рекомендована література:

  1. IBM PC для пользователя. – Краткий курс. – М.: ИНФА. – 1999

  2. Гальперин И.Р., Медникова Э.М. Большой англо-русский политехнический словарь. – Москва: Русский язык, 1987.

  3. Лоскутова Г.В. О компьютере по-английски. – Санкт-Питербург: КАРО. – 2004

  4. Федоршин О.П., Євстіфєєв П.Ф., Рябушенко Т.Л. Англійська мова. Практикум з науково-технічного перекладу, – Тернопіль Навчальна книга – Богдан, 2002 – 52с.

  5. Чебурашкин Н.Д. Хрестоматия по техническому переводу. – Москва: Просвещение, 1987.

Дидактичне забезпечення: текст, словники.

Самостійна робота №15

Тема: Технічний переклад та переказ тексту за фахом: “Мови програмування”

Завдання до самостійної роботи:

  1. Скласти словник незнайомих слів з тексту (не менше 10).









  1. Вивчити слова на пам'ять

  2. Перекласти текст усно українською мовою.

  3. Перекласти абзаци № 1, 6 тексту письмово українською мовою

  4. Скласти анотацію англійською мовою (письмово)

  5. Переказати текст згідно анотації.

Programming language

  1. A programming language or computer language is a standardized communication technique for expressing instructions to a computer. It is a set of syntactic and semantic rales used to define computer programs. A language enables a programmer to precisely specify what data a computer will act upon, how these data will be stored/transmitted, and precisely what actions to take under various circumstances.

Features of a programming language

  1. Each programming language can be thought of as a set of formal specifications concerning syntax, vocabulary, and meaning.

  2. These specifications usually include:

  • Data and Data Structures

  • Instruction and Control Flow

  • Reference Mechanisms and Re-use

  • Design Philosophy

  1. Most languages that are widely used, or have been used for a considerable period of time, have standardization bodies that meet regularly to create and publish formal definitions of the language, and discuss extending or supplementing file already extant definitions.

History of programming languages

  1. The development of programming languages, unsurprisingly, follows closely the development of the physical and electronic processes used in today's computers.

  2. Charles Babbage is often credited with designing the first computer-like machines, which had several programs written for them (in the equivalent of assembly language) by Ada Lovelace. In the 1940s the first reoognisably modern, electrically powered computers were created. Some military calculation needs were a driving force in early computer development, such as encryption, decryption, trajectory calculation and massive number crunching needed in the development of atomic bombs. At that time, computers were extremely large, slow and expensive: advances in electronic technology in the post-war years led to the construction of more practical electronic computers. At that time only Konrad Zuse imagined the use of a programming language (developed eventually as Рlankalkűl) like those of today for solving problems.

  3. Subsequent breakthroughs in electronic technology (transistors, integrated circuits, and chips) drove the development of increasingly reliable and more usable computers. This was paralleled by the development of a variety of standardised computer languages to run on them. The improved availability and ease of use of computers led to a much wider circle of people who can deal with computers. The subsequent explosive development has resulted in the Internet, the ubiquity of personal computers, and increased use of computer programming, through more accessible languages such as Python, Visual Basic, etc.

Classifications of programming languages

  • Array programming language

  • Concatenative programming language

  • Concurrent programming language

  • Domain-specific programming language

  • Dynamic programming language

  • Educational programming language

  • Esoteric programming language

  • Functional programming language

  • General-purpose programming language

  • Logic programming language

  • Object-oriented programming language

  • Procedural programming language

  • Scripting programming language

Major languages

  1. Тhе following are major programming languages used by at least several thousand programmers worldwide:

Ada, ALGOL, APL, AWK, BASIC, С, С++, C#, COBOL, ColdFusion, Common Lisp, Delphi, Eiffel, Focus, Fortran, Haskell, IDL, Java, JavaScript, Lisp, Objectfve-C, OCaml, Pascal, Perl, PHP, Prolog, Python, Ruby, SAS, Scheme, Smalltalk, SQL, Visual Basiс.