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Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики»

Департамент иностранных языков

Боголепова C.B., Темяникова Э.Б.

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

ДЛЯ ПОСТУПАЮЩИХ В МАГИСТРАТУРУ НИУ ВШЭ

Рецензент: профессор, к.ф.н. Якушева И.В.

Утверждено департаментом иностранных языков Руководитель департамента иностранных языков

Соловова Е.Н.

Москва 2014

Contents

Пояснительная записка __________________________ 3

Unit 1

Lesson 1 ________________________________________ 5 Lesson 2 ________________________________________ 24 Lesson 3 ________________________________________ 47 Self-study _______________________________________ 66

Unit 2

Lesson 1 ________________________________________ 82 Lesson 2 ________________________________________ 95 Lesson 3 ________________________________________ 111 Self-study _______________________________________ 124

Unit 3

Lesson 1 ________________________________________ 142 Lesson 2 ________________________________________ 155 Lesson 3 ________________________________________ 168 Self-study _______________________________________ 186

Unit 4

Lesson 1 _________________________________________ 202 Lesson 2 _________________________________________ 222 Lesson 3 _________________________________________ 241 Self-study ________________________________________ 261

Answer Keys _____________________________________ 278 Audio Scripts _____________________________________ 314 Word list ________________________________________ 335 References_______________________________________ 341

2

Пояснительная записка

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для слушателей подготовительного отделения, изучающих английский язык с целью поступления в магистратуру НИУ ВШЭ. Его задача – формирование и развитие иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции обучающихся. Работая с пособием, слушатели научатся воспринимать материал, предъявляемый в устной и письменной форме по четырем направлениям подготовки: экономика, математика и информационные технологии, психология, менеджмент. Весь материал изучается с акцентом на академическую лексику и формирование академических умений.

Пособие состоит из четырех разделов, каждый из которых делится на три урока. Урок имеет единую структуру и включает шесть компонентов:

1.Text 1 Раздел содержит одно задание экзаменационного формата и дополнительные задания на контроль понимания содержания текста.

2.Vocabulary В данном разделе отрабатывается академическая и терминологическая лексика текста первого раздела. Предлагаются задания на соотнесение термина с его дефиницией, соотнесение английских и русских эквивалентов, определение значения слова по словообразовательным элементам и синтаксической функции в предложении, изучение сочетаемости лексических единиц, изучение связующих элементов, помогающих глубже понять текст, задания на работу со словарной статьей толкового англо-английского словаря, способствующие развитию учебной компетенции.

3.Grammar Раздел содержит краткое объяснение основных грамматических явлений, знание которых проверяется на вступительном экзамене, и тренировочные упражнения.

Unit 1 English Tenses in the Active Voice: Lesson 1 – Present Tenses

Lesson 2 – Past Tenses

3

Lesson 3 – Future Tenses + Reported Speech Unit 2 English Tenses in the Passive Voice

Lesson 1 – Present and Past Simple Passive Lesson 2 – Present Continuous, Present Perfect,

Future Simple Passive

Lesson 3 – the Overview of the Passive Voice Unit 3 – Modal verbs

Lesson 1 – Modal Verbs

Lesson 2 – Equivalents of Modal Verbs Lesson 3 – Modals with Different Infinitives

Unit 4 – Conditionals

Lesson 1 - Types of Conditionals 0, I, II, III

Lesson 2 - Mixed conditionals and “wish” sentences

Lesson 3 - Other constructions to express something as unreal or imaginary or desired

4.Exam practice Раздел включает Text 2 с заданием экзаменационного формата.

5.Listening В разделе отрабатывается умение понимать запрашиваемую информацию разной степени детализации.

6.Self-study В раздел включены дополнительные тексты с типовыми экзаменационными заданиями, ссылки на интернет– ресурсы для работы по разным видам речевой деятельности.

Задания, помеченные звездочкой (*) факультативны.

Сцелью обеспечения возможности самостоятельной работы все упражнения снабжены комментариями в разделах

Answer Keys и Audio Scripts. Списки академической и терминологической лексики высокой частотности представлены в Word list в конце пособия.

В разделе References указаны используемые источники информации на бумажных и электронных носителях, включая интернет - ресурсы.

Усвоив материал, слушатели достигнут более высокого уровня иноязычной компетенции для успешной учебы в магистратуре НИУ ВШЭ. Желаем удачи!

4

UNIT 1

Lesson 1

Text 1

Pre-reading

Ex. 1 Answer the questions:

1.How important do you think job security is?

2.What is the rate of unemployment in your country?

3.Which population groups are more likely to be at risk of redundancy? Why?

4.Read the title of the text. Try to predict what aspect of youth unemployment it will be about. Read the text quickly to check your predictions.

Reading

Ex. 2 Read the paragraphs (A-G) and put them in a logical order to make a text. The first and the last paragraphs are given. Which words in each paragraph helped you decide?

STRATEGY POINT

1.Read the title so you know what the text is going to be about.

2.Skim the text. Read the first paragraph of the text.

3.Then read the paragraphs focusing on the first and the last sentence of each paragraph.

4.Remember to look for clues such as reference words (it, that, he, there, etc.) or linking words.

5.Read the text through to see if it makes sense.

1.A; 2. __; 3.__; 4. __; 5. __; 6.__7. G

5

Young and jobless forever: What do the numbers tell us?

A.The jobs crisis facing the world's young people shows no sign of decline. The evidence suggests that queues for jobs are growing longer and some are getting so frustrated at their employment prospects they have taken to the streets to protest. The statistics can make gloomy reading.

B.For example, it shows that a young person's sex can make a big difference to their employment prospects. "If you are a young male you have a higher chance of finding a good and stable job in developing countries," says Sara Elder, a senior economist at the ILO. The difference is startling in some countries. Take the regions with the highest youth unemployment rates - the Middle East and North Africa. The unemployment rate for young Middle Eastern men was estimated to be 24.5% in 2012. For young women, it's much higher, at 42.6%.In North Africa too, young women are twice as likely to be unemployed as their male counterparts. Unemployment rates can also hide many of the realities faced by those who are in work.

C.If you group together the European Union and other developed economies, the youth unemployment rate has risen by a quarter since 2008. According to the United Nations' International Labour Organization (ILO), the situation for young people will continue to worsen until 2018. The ILO estimates that in 2013, more than 73 million young people - those aged between 15 and 24 - are out of work, a global rate of 12.6%. The eagle-eyed will notice that this appears to be lower than last year's figure, which was originally 75 million, but has since been revised down as the real data became available and the ILO adapted its sophisticated econometric models. Before taking a closer look at the numbers in particular countries, we have to understand how they're arrived at.

D.In developed economies, many people remain in full-time education into their twenties. This means that the economically inactive population is very large in relation to the economically

6

active and high youth unemployment rates can be the result. If we revisit the two EU countries which featured last year, Spain and Greece, they both had youth unemployment rates higher than 50% in 2012. If we try to account for the effect of remaining in education by calculating the ratio of young people unemployed - the share of people without a job as a percentage of the whole youth population - the prospects for young people perhaps do not look quite as unpleasantly clear. The proportion "unemployed" in Spain now falls to just over 20%. In other areas of the world, using a strict definition of unemployment has the opposite effect: it hides a more worrying reality.

E.All unemployment rates are calculated as percentages not of the total population, but of something called the "economically active population". That is the employed plus the unemployed, which have strict definitions so that we can make comparisons between countries. Someone is classified unemployed if they do not have a job but would like one, have actively looked for one and have the time to do it. A person is "economically inactive" if they neither have a job nor are unemployed according to the definition above. It could be that someone does not want or need to work so hasn't actively sought out a job, or it could be that someone is unavailable to work - for example, as is likely with young people, they are studying full-time. Relying on statistics alone can hide a far more complicated picture.

F.When you compare high-income economies to some of the least developed countries, “big differences are found in the regularity of work", explains Ms Elder. "Very few young people in the least developed economies can find a job with a contract that goes beyond 12 months." In developing countries, six in 10 young people are engaged in irregular employment: a salaried worker with a contract of less than a year, a self-employed young person with no employees and contributing family workers. The figure for high-income economies was fewer than two in 10. And there is a strong link between the proportion of young people in irregular employment and the proportion in informal employment

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- where people are either working in the black market or are working in the formal sector, but without entitlements to sick pay, paid annual leave and social security. Using a strict definition of unemployment can also help give a misleading picture of the plight of the young.

G.Remember that to be counted as unemployed someone has to be actively looking for work. In most developed economies, it makes sense for young people to search. They have to prove that they've been trying to find a job in order to receive unemployment benefits. But in developing countries, where no such benefits exist and poverty forces young people out of school and into the workplace, it makes less sense. If we relax this "active job search" requirement, it has a significant impact. In some of the least developed countries the unemployment rate more than doubles. Unemployment continues to be a huge obstacle to millions of young people in many countries across the world. What is perhaps more worrying is that because of the way joblessness is calculated, the crisis could be even worse than the numbers suggest. [3]

Ex. 3 Complete the following sentences to summarize the text above.

1.The statistics of the United Nations' International Labour Organization on youth unemployment make gloomy reading because …..

2.A person is classified unemployed if …

3.The gender gap in employability on the labour market means …

4.The concept of irregular employment means …

5.Education can distort unemployment figures because ….

6.If young people in full-time education are included in calculation, unemployment rate is ….

7.If young people in full-time education are excluded from calculation, unemployment rate is ….

8.The way unemployment is treated and calculated can worsen the situation because …

8

*Discussion

What are the features of a modern labour market? Is it flexible or not? Comment on your opinion.

In a period of growing unemployment, what are the ways to increase your employability? Are you optimistic or pessimistic about your own future? Do you expect the qualification you are currently studying for to help you get a permanent job?

Vocabulary

Ex.4 Work out the meaning of the following words from Text 1.

1.Find each one and study how it is used in the text.

2.Tick the correct part of speech.

 

 

 

 

noun

verb

 

adjective

a.

rates (para B)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

comparison (para E)

 

 

 

 

 

c.

classified (para E)

 

 

 

 

 

d.

definition (para E)

 

 

 

 

 

e.

unavailable (para E)

 

 

 

 

 

f.

complicated (para E)

 

 

 

 

 

g.

difference (para B)

 

 

 

 

 

h.

prospects (para B)

 

 

 

 

 

i.

regularity (para F)

 

 

 

 

 

j.

proportion (para F)

 

 

 

 

 

k.

misleading (para F)

 

 

 

 

 

3.

Match the words below to those in the table above.

1.

deceptive

2. complex

3. unlikeness

4. levels

5. description

6. categorized

7. amount

8. steadiness

9. inaccessible

10. analogy

11. possibilities

Ex. 5 Find in Text 1 English equivalents given in bold for the following Russian words and word combinations.

1. имеет смысл/логично/целесообразно/разумно

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2.признак спада/уменьшения

3.огромное препятствие/трудность

4.сверстники мужского пола

5.процент/процентное содержание

6.пособие по безработице

7.наименее развитые страны

8.развивающиеся страны

9.учиться очно

10.дневная очная форма обучения

11.нерегулярная/непостоянная занятость

12.картина тяжелого состояния/ситуации

13.экономически активное/работающее население

14.объяснять

15.право

16.иметь большое значение

17.поразительный/ удивительный

18.расстроенный/разочарованный

19.сложный/замысловатый

20.удручающий/приводящий в уныние

21.проницательный

Ex. 6 Match the words and word combinations (1-12) to their definitions (A-L).

1.job security

2.redundancy

3.employment prospects

4.unemployment rate

5.econometric model

6.counterpart

7.sick pay

8.annual leave

9.social security.

10.the black market

11.unemployment benefit

12.informal economy

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