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Методичка по англ. языку 2 курс 1 часть.doc
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Cocoa powder”

  1. Прочитав текст, разделите его на логические части и озаглавьте их.

  2. Назовите все операции переработки сырья на кондитерской фабрике.

  3. Докажите, что качество шоколада зависит от условий его хранения.

  4. Используя текст, составьте схему технологии производства шоколада.

Chocolate and cocoa powder are made from cacao beans, the seeds of cacao tree. When cacao beans are ripe they are extracted from the pods1 and are fermented. The period of fermentation covers 7-12 days and is of great importance for the quality of cacao beans. After fermentation the beans are dried, bagged and shipped to the market.

At a confectionery factory the beans are cleaned and graded. Then they are roasted and passed through grinding mills which change them to a thick liquid called liquor. The liquor is passed through a press which extracts 70-80 per cent of the cacao butter. The rest of butter remains in the cocoa. Then the mass is powdered and becomes cocoa.

In order to make chocolate the liquor from grinding mill is put into melangeur, sugar and some cacao butter being added to it. If milk chocolate is to be made, milk is added. The mass is heated and rolled on either a stone or steel plate. The latter process is called “conching” and takes 3-72 hours.

Finally the product is poured into moulds and cooled. Now the chocolate is ready for wrapping and shipping to the consumer.

Care should be taken in the storage of chocolate as it will become affected by external conditions. The two most important factors are humidity and temperature. High degree of humidity causes moisture condensing on the product and sugar dissolving in the mixture. On later water evaporation sugar crystals will appear as a gray excrescence2 on the surface of the chocolate. This is called sugar bloom3. The presence of a stabilizer such as lecithin has an inhibiting effect on this phenomenon.

If the storage room is too warm, the cacao butter in the mass will melt and expand. The less dense fat will rise to the surface of the chocolate and on later cooling will solidify there forming a grayish-white film. This is known as fat bloom.

Proper working of chocolate, tempering4 and storage of the product will prevent it from undergoing this defect.

1 pods – стручки

2 excrescence – нарост

3 bloom – цветение

4 tempering – темперирование, кондиционирование

Письменно переведите тексты на русский язык.

TEXT C3a MANUFACTURE OF COCOA

Notes

  1. kill – дробилка

  2. chocolate liquor – какао тертое

  3. grinding stones – жернова

  4. pot – зд. чан, камера

  5. cake – жмых

Cocoa, as a beverage, is an important addition to the diet because of its food value and slightly stimulating effect. Quite a lot of cocoa is used by the confectionery industry in the making of candy.

The preliminary process in the manufacture of cocoa are similar to those of chocolate. The raw beans are cleaned, roasted, cracked and freed from the shell and germ.

The roasted nibs are transferred to the kills1 to be converted to chocolate liquor2. The grinding, in this case, is very thorough.

Modern practice in the grinding of nibs includes the use of disk mills. These mills, being water-cooled, prevent over-heating and have a much larger output than the regular grinding stones3. The chocolate liquor is then pumped to hydraulic presses where most of the cacao-butter is removed.

The hydraulic press consists of 5 metal pots4 with perforated beds. By means of control valves the pots are automatically filled. The closing of the pots is also automatic and is accomplished by the use of strong springs. The press cakes5 are automatically ejected from the pots and are ready to be converted into cocoa.

To be converted into cocoa powder, the cakes must be cooled and then broken into small pieces. The broken cakes are passed over a magnetic separator to remove any metallic particles that may be present, and are then ground to a fine powder. The powdered cocoa is sifted and ready to be packed.

TEXT C3bFROM THE HISTORY OF THE CONFECTIONERY

Notes

  1. spread – паста; намазывать

  2. grape – виноград

  3. quince – айва

  4. duty - пошлина

The first sweet spread1 used was almost certainly honey, but a fruity spread is reported by Pliny to have been used by both the Greeks and the Romans, called by the latter “de fructum”. It was obtained by boiling down grapes2, but was commonly mixed with wine or milk to produce a sweet dish. The word “marmalade” is said to be derived from the Potruguese word Marmelo – a quince3, and there are accounts of its use in the sixteenth century.

Fruits other than quinces and oranges were used for making marmalade, but when other fruits were used, the product became known as “Jam”, a word which is alleged to be derived from the French “J’aime” and was first referred to in 1730. Others say it comes from the Arabian word Jamad for preserved fruit.

Home-made jam or marmalade steadily gained in popularity, but it was not until the early part of the nineteenth century that it was made commercially. The cheapening of sugar by reduction of the heavy duty4 in 1874 led to a rapid increase in manufacture, and Britain became a jam-maker on a world-wide scale.

Jam can be described as a preparation made by boiling fruit with sugar to produce a consistency firm enough to spread on bread and capable of being transported without flow talking place. Jams are eaten primarily for their pleasant flavour, hence the type of fruit is important. So are also the colour and freshness of the fruit.

Маргарита Ставровна Иоаниди

Кафедра “Иностранные языки”

Авторская редакция

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