Добавил:
Upload Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
Theory of phonetics.doc
Скачиваний:
570
Добавлен:
22.02.2016
Размер:
581.63 Кб
Скачать

Affricates

[C, G]

are articulated with the blade of the tongue raised to touch the back of the alveolar ridge. A complete obstruction is formed in order the air passage through the mouth to be blocked for a short time. Then the front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate and the tip of the tongue is slowly removed from the alveolar ridge, forming a flat narrowing through which air passes with friction. They are slightly palatalized. First vocal cords are kept apart and don’t vibrate. Then they are drawn together and vibrate. It is a 2-focus sound.

[ч]

The front of the tongue is raised higher.

[G]

It is voiced . [G] We need more noise to prolong the sound and to pronounce it quickly.

There is no counterpart in Russian. Compare: Лечьбы.

[ts]

It is not an affricate. It is a cluster of two consonants: t + s.

[ц]

The blade of the tongue touches the upper teeth, the tip being passive and lowered. A stop is formed. After that the blade of the tongue is slowly removed from the teeth, forming a groove-like narrowing. The air passes through it with friction.

Sonorants

[m]

Is articulated with the lips slightly pressed together, forming a complete obstruction to the air to pass out through the mouth cavity. The vocal cords are drawn near together and vibrate. It is more sonorous and energetic than the Russian sound [м]

[м]

The front of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate, thus palatalizing the sound.

[n]

Is articulated with the tongue tip touching the alveolar ridge, forming a complete obstruction to the air flow through the mouth cavity. The soft palate is lowered. The air passes through the nasal cavity. The vocal cords are drawn near together and vibrate.

[н]

The blade of the tongue is pressed against the upper teeth, the tip being passive and lowered, thus palatalizing the sound.

[N]

Is articulated with the back of the tongue raised and touching the soft palate, thus forming a complete obstruction to the air flow through the mouth cavity. The soft palate is lowered and the air passes out through the nasal cavity. The vocal cords are drawn near together and vibrate. [N]

occurs at the end of a word or syllable.

In order to avoid mispronouncing of this sound we are to prevent the tip of blade of the tongue from touching the upper teeth or alveolar ridge.

There is no counterpart in Russian.

Keep the tip of the tongue pressed against the base of the lower teeth.

Constrictive

[f, v]

Are articulated with the lower lip raised to the edge of the upper teeth, forming a flat narrowing. The air passes through it with friction. They are more intensive than the Russian counterparts.

[ф, в]

The upper teeth are slightly pressed against the inner part of the lower lip.

[T, D]

Are articulated with the tip of the tongue slightly projected out between the upper and lower teeth. The tip of the tongue is placed against the edge of the upper teeth to form a flat narrowing, the main part of the tongue being fairly flat and relaxed, while the air passes through the narrowing with friction.

There is no counterpart in Russian.

In order not to mispronounce these sounds you shouldn’t let the lower lip touch the upper teeth, which is typical of the pronunciation of the sounds [ф, в]

- Keep the tongue right between the teeth.

- The tip of the tongue mustn’t be pressed hard against the upper teeth.

- Keep the tongue tense and flat so as to close the air-passage along the sides of the tongue.

[s, z]

Are articulated with the tip and blade of the tongue held close to the alveolar ridge. The sides of the blade of the tongue are raised, forming a short and narrow groove-like channel. Thus a round narrowing is formed through which the air passes with friction.

To train [s, z] try to lengthen them.

[с, з]

A round narrowing is formed by the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth, the tongue tip being lowered and passive.

[S, Z]

Are articulated with the tip and blade of the tongue and the front of the tongue simultaneously raised. A flat narrowing is formed by the tip and blade of the tongue held close to the back of the alveolar ridge for primary articulation and by front of the tongue raised in the direction of the hard palate for slight palatalization. The air passes through the narrowing with friction. The lips are rounded and slightly protruded.

[ш, ж]

The front of the tongue is raised higher than in the case of the English [S, Z].

[ш] and [ж] are more palatalized. You shouldn’t lengthen [S] and [Z].

[h]

Is articulated with a strong stream passing through the open glottis. The bulk of the tongue and the lips are held in the position necessary for the production of a following vowel. It can only occur in syllable-initial prevocalic position.

For example, high [hai]

[h] is a pure sound of breath, almost noiseless.

[х]

Is articulated in the mouth cavity. The back of the tongue forms a narrowing against the soft palate and the air passes through the narrowing with considerable friction.

It is necessary to keep the back of the tongue away from the soft palate without creating any obstruction in the mouth cavity to the air stream.

Соседние файлы в предмете [НЕСОРТИРОВАННОЕ]