Добавил:
Опубликованный материал нарушает ваши авторские права? Сообщите нам.
Вуз: Предмет: Файл:
Скачиваний:
46
Добавлен:
10.08.2013
Размер:
1.44 Mб
Скачать

DZd `_ _]h ijbf_gylv" Kljhbf oh^ jZkkm`^_gbb KgZqZeZ gZ^h hij_^_eblv kdhevdh \ ij_^eh`_gbb ]jZffZlbq_kdbo hkgh\ ?keb h^gZ agZqbl ij_^eh`_gb_ ijhklh_ _keb [hevr_ agZqbl keh`gh_ Khhl\_lkl\mxsmx kZfhbgkljmdpbx fh`gh ihkljhblv \ \b^_ ko_fu

KZfhbgkljmdpby dhlhjmx fu k \Zfb k_cqZk khklZ\beb ijhklZ < ^Zevg_cr_f gZf ijb^_lky khklZ\eylv b [he__ keh`gu_

>ey m^h[kl\Z jZ[hlu fh`gh k^_eZlv lZd qlh[u \h \j_fy \uiheg_gby aZ^Zgbc [ueZ \hafh`ghklv \a]eygmlv gZ bgkljmdpbx H^bg ebl_jZlmjguc ]_jhc \_rZe kibkhd bghkljZgguo keh\ dhlhju_ hg ^he`_g [ue \umqblv gZ^ a_jdZevp_f ^ey [jblvy

H^gZdh kZfh ih k_[_ mf_gb_ khklZ\blv b ^Z`_ aZihfgblv bgkljmdpbx _s_ g_ h[_ki_qb\Z_l ]jZfhlgh]h ibkvfZ >y^xrdZ Ih^`_j i_jkhgZ` dgb]b Zg]ebckdh]h ibkZl_ey >`_jhfZ D >`_jhfZ©Ljh_ \ h^ghc eh^d_ g_ kqblZy kh[Zdbªfh] ^Zlv ex[hfm q_eh\_dm bgkljmdpbx h lhf dZd \[blv \ kl_gdm ]\ha^v qlh[u ih\_kblv gZ g_]h dZjlbgm H^gZdh dh]^Z hg ijbgbfZeky aZ ^_eh kZf hg qZs_ ihiZ^Ze fhehldhf ih kh[kl\_gguf iZev pZf q_f ih reyid_ ]\ha^y lZd qlh bgkljmdpby²wlh _s_

12

g_ \k_ Mf_gb_ ijbf_gylv bgkljmdpbx gZ ijZdlbd_ ijboh^bl lhevdh [eZ]h^Zjy l j _ g b j h \ d _ [eZ]h^Zjy ihklhygguf mijZ`g_gbyf

BlZd agZgb_ ijZ\beZ²khklZ\e_gb_ bgkljmdpbb ih _]h ijbf_g_gbx ²lj_gbjh\dZ >hklZlhqgh eb \k_]h wlh]h qlh[u©]jZfhlghklv ijbjhkeZ d dhgqbdm i_jZª">hklZlhqgh Gh lhevdh

lh]^Z dh]^Z jZkklZ\ey_rv agZdb ij_ibgZgby \ ]hlh\hf l_dkl_ gZijbf_j \ mijZ`g_gbb ba mq_[gbdZ : _keb kha^Z_rv k\hc l_dkl ² khqbg_gb_ ibkvfh ^g_\gbd"Lh]^Z agZdb ij_ibgZgby jh`^Zxlky \ l_dkl_ \f_kl_ kh keh\Zfb

©Ij_^qm\kl\b_ªagZdZ ij_ibgZgby

=jZfhlgu_ ex^b qZklh ]h\hjyl h qm\kl\_ yaudZ [eZ]h^Zjy dhlhjhfm jmdZ dZd [u kZfZ kh[hc klZ\bl gm`guc agZd gZ gm`ghf f_kl_ Qlh wlh aZ qm\kl\h" B g_evay eb jZa\blv \ k_[_ wlm kihkh[ghklv ©qm\kl\h\Zlvª beb ^Z`_©ij_^qm\kl\h\ZlvªihklZgh\dm agZdZ"Ihijh[m_f jZah[jZlvky \ wlhf Mf_gb_ ©qm\kl\h\Zlvª agZd ij_`^_ \k_]h k\yaZgh kh kihkh[ghklvx i j _ ^ m ] Z ^ u \ Z l v l _ d k l Wlh h^bg ba kZfuo [hevrbo k_dj_lh\

]jZfhlgh]h ibkvfZ >Z\Zcl_ jZkkfhljbf ihih^jh[g__ wlm kihkh[ghklv IhgbfZgb_ qm`hc j_qb b kha^Zgb_ kh[kl\_gghc k\yaZgh k

m^b\bl_evghc q_eh\_q_kdhc kihkh[ghklvx ^ey h[hagZq_gby dhlhjhc kha^Zg p_euc jy^ keh\ ij_^\b^_gb_ ij_^\hkobs_gb_ ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_ ij_^qm\kl\b_ mij_`^_gb_ ijh]ghabjh\Zgb_ LZd qblZy ij_^eh`_gb_ dhlhjh_ gZqbgZ_lky k l_ fu ij_^m]Z^u\Z_f qlh kdhjh ihke_^m_l dhlhju_ MkeurZ\ keh\Z ^ey lh]h fu ij_^\b^bf qlh[u Fgh]h qbke_ggu_ l_ ^ey lh]h lZf ]^_ b l ^ ^Zxl gZf \hafh`ghklv ij_^\hkobsZlv \ dZdhc lh kl_i_gb b fukev b bglhgZpbx b \ujZ`Zxsmx wlm fukev kbglZdkbq_kdmx dhgkljmdpbx b ke_^h\Zl_evgh agZdb ij_ibgZgby LZd ih keh\Zf :o dZdhc fh`gh [_ahrb[hqgh ij_^m]Z^Zlv ij_^eh`_gb_ k \hkdebpZl_evghc bglhgZpb_c b aZjZg__ \gmlj_gg_ gZkljhblvky gZ ihklZgh\dm \hkdebpZl_evgh]h agZdZ \ dhgp_ ij_^eh`_gby < ^jm]bo kemqZyo fh`gh ih ^Zgguf keh\Zf [_ahrb[hqgh ij_^kdZaZlv dhgdj_lguc kfuke _s_ g_ aZibkZgguo GZijbf_j < ghy[j_ \uiZe i_j\uc

imrbkluc Beb KZfZy bgl_j_kgZy hkh[_gghklv \g_rg_]h \b^Z `bjZnZ ²wlh _]h ^ebggZy

13

Kihkh[kl\m_l eb mf_gb_ ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv l_dkl ]jZfhlghfm ibkvfm" Ih`Zemc gb h^bg kqZkleb\uc h[eZ^Zl_ev iyl_jdb ih jmkkdhfm yaudm g_ kfh`_l hl\_lblv \Zf gZ wlhl \hijhk Qlh ijhbkoh^bl \ ]heh\_ ibrms_]h \ lhl fhf_gl dh]^Z _]h jmdZ dZd [u kZfZ kh[hc klZ\bl gZ f_klh gm`guc agZd"Wlh]h g_ kmf__l h[tykgblv gb rdhevgbd gb \ajhkeuc < _]h fha]m \k_ kh\_jrZ_lky lZd [ukljh b ijb\uqgh qlh hg g_ hkhagZ_l dZd wlh ijhbkoh^bl Qlh[u ihgylv b hibkZlv wlh [ue ihklZ\e_g lZdhc hiul

<ajhkeuf ]jZfhlguf ex^yf ij_^eZ]Zehkv gZibkZlv ^bdlZgl Ijh\h^beky wlhl ^bdlZgl g_ kh\k_f h[uqguf kihkh[hf GZijbf_j ^bdlh\Zehkv >_j_\gy ]^_ ihke_ q_]h ^_eZeZkv iZmaZ Q_eh\_d gZqZ\rbc ibkZlv wlh ij_^eh`_gb_ kjZam `_ klZ\be aZiylmx ihke_ keh\Z ^_j_\gy i_j_^ ]^_ GZ \hijhk ihq_fm hg wlh k^_eZe ibrmsbc hl\_qZe ijbf_jgh lZd ih \b^bfhfm ihke_ keh\Z ]^_ [m^_l khh[s_gh qlh lh qlh [ueh \ ^_j_\g_ ih hdhgqZgbb wlh]h khh[s_gby gZ^h [m^_l ihklZ\blv \lhjmx aZiylmx Z ^Zevr_ ihc^_l j_qv h lhf dZdZy wlh [ueZ ^_j_\gy

Ex^b ihfgysb_ ]jZffZlbdm jZkkm`^Zeb lZd keh\hf ^_j_\gy gZqbgZ_lky ]eZ\gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ keh\hf ]^_ ² ijb^Zlhqgh_ hij_^_ebl_evgh_ dhlhjh_ jZaju\Z_l ]eZ\gh_ Dh]^Z ijb^Zlhqgh_ dhgqblky gZ^h ihklZ\blv aZiylmx ihlhfm qlh ^Zevr_ ihc^_l ijh^he`_gb_ ]eZ\gh]h \ dhlhjhf [m^_l kdZam_fh_ d ih^e_`Zs_fm ^_j_\gy b ijh^he`_gb_ oZ jZdl_jbklbdb ^_j_\gb

LZdbf h[jZahf _s_ g_ agZy kh^_j`Zgby ij_^eh`_gby ibrmsbc m`_ ij_^m]Z^u\Z_l b _]h h[sbc kfuke b kbglZdkbq_kdmx kljmdlmjm b agZdb ij_ibgZgby Lhevdh ih i_j\uf keh\Zf hg m`_ fh`_l khklZ\blv ko_fm \dexqZxsmx b agZdb

14

B aZibku\Zy ^Zevr_ ij_^eh`_gb_ >_j_\gy ]^_ kdmqZe ?\]_gbb [ueZ ij_e_klguc m]hehd hg m`_ ]hlh\ d ihklZgh\d_ \lhjhc aZiylhc ihke_ keh\Z

?\]_gbc

?keb ]jZfhlghfm q_eh\_d ^bdlh\Zeb gZqZeh ij_^eh`_gby Dh]^Z fZevqbrdb [jhkb\ hg klZ\be aZiylmx i_j_^ keh\hf [jhkb\ ij_^\b^y ^__ijbqZklguc h[hjhl Djhf_ lh]h hg m`_ ^h]Z^u\Zeky qlh dh]^Z fZevqbrdb [jhkb\ qlh lh h^gh klZeb ^_eZlv qlh lh ^jm]h_ beb aZgyebkv q_f lh ^jm]bf ijhbahreh qlh lh lj_lv_ LZdbf h[jZahf ibrmsbc m`_ ij_^m]Z^Ze \ kZfhf h[s_f \b^_ b kfukeh\mx b kbglZdkbq_kdmx kljmdlmjm ij_^eh`_gby b©\jhkrb_ª\ wlm kljmdlmjm agZdb ij_ibgZgby

WlZ kihkh[ghklv ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv²\Z`g_crZy khklZ\gZy qZklv mf_gby jZkklZ\eylv agZdb ih oh^m ibkvfZ g_ hldeZ^u\Zy wlh]h \Z`gh]h ^_eZ gZ ^Zevg_cr__ h[^mfu\Zgb_ ihke_ aZibkb

IZfylv b ]jZfhlghklv

Ke_^mxsbc k_dj_l \_jghc jZkklZgh\db agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby khklhbl \ kihkh[ghklb a Z i h f b g Z l v a Z i b k Z g g h _ .

<h \j_fy aZibkb gb h^gh ij_^eh`_gb_ djhf_ kZfuo dhjhl_gvdbo g_ ijbkmlkl\m_l \ khagZgbb \k_ p_ebdhf k h^bgZdh\hc ykghklvx AZibku\Z_fZy njZaZ ^\b`_lky q_j_a khagZgb_ ibrms_]h dZd ghqghc ih_a^ q_j_a hk\_s_gguc lmgg_ev hlq_leb\h \b^gZ lhevdh lZ qZklv dhlhjZy gZoh ^blky \ lmgg_e_ GZqZeh njZau dZd i_j\u_ \Z]hgu ih_a^Z m`_ mreh aZ ij_^_eu hlq_leb\hc \b^bfhklb Z dhg_p _s_ g_ \t_oZe \ hk\_s_ggh_ ijhkljZgkl\h

Ibrmsbc q_eh\_d \ dZ`^uc ^Zgguc fhf_gl jZ[hlZ_l lhevdh k ©hlj_adhfª ij_^eh`_gby bf_y ijb wlhf g_ kh\k_f hlq_leb\uc ijh]gha lh]h qlh ij_^klhbl gZibkZlv Hl lh]h gZkdhevdh ohjhrh q_eh\_d ibrmsbc ^Zgguc ©hlj_ahdª ij_^eh`_gby ihfgbl aZibkZggh_ b ij_^\hkobsZ_l lh qlh gZibr_l \h fgh]hf aZ\bkbl ijZ\bevghklv kha^Z\Z_fh]h bf l_dklZ \ lhf qbke_ b ijZ\bevghklv jZkklZgh\db agZdh\ ij_ibgZgby

>himklbf qlh \u aZibkZeb LZf ]^_ ?keb \u kjZam ^h]Z^Zebkv qlh k_cqZk ihke_^m_l ijb^Zlhqgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ dhlhjh_ ©\debgblkyª \ ]eZ\gh_ lh kjZam `_ ihklZ\bl_ aZiylmx i_j_^ ]^_ Ijh^he`Zy aZibkv ij_^eh`_gby LZf ]^_ g_[h \klj_lbehkv k a_fe_c ]hjbahgl jh^beky

fheh^hc \u

15

^he`gu ihfgblv k\hx ^h]Z^dm ^h l_o ihj ihdZ g_ dhgqblky ijb^Zlhqgh_ b hlf_lblv wlh kh[ulb_ ihklZgh\dhc aZiylhc i_j_^ keh\hf ]hjbahgl ij_^eh`_gb_ \aylh ba klbohl\hj_gby F : K\_leh\Z ©=hjbahglª

G_^hq_lu ©k[hbª ij_^m]Z^u\Zgby b aZihfbgZgby g_ba[_`gh ijb\h^yl d hrb[dZf <hl h[jZa_p lZdbo hrb[hd \ jZ[hl_ h^gh]h rdhevgbdZ ² KZrb G < _]h l_ljZ^yo h[hkh[e_ggu_ hij_^_e_gby b h[klhyl_evkl\Z \\h^gu_ ij_^eh`_gby ijb^Zlhqgu_ gZoh^ysb_ky \gmljb ]eZ\guo g_ \u^_eyebkv k ^\mo klhjhg Z bf_eb lhevdh h^gm aZiylmx²gZ dhgp_ GZijbf_j ij_^eh`_gb_ <^jm] \ lh ms_ev_ ]^_ M` k\_jgmeky iZe k g_[Z Khdhe KZrZ gZibkZe [_a i_j\hc aZiylhc GZ \hijhk ij_ih^Z\Zl_ey ihq_fm wlh ijhbkoh^bl fZevqbd hl\_lbe©Y lhevdh d dhgpm ^h]Z^u\Zxkv qlh ibrm dZdhc lh h[hjhl b lh]^Z m`_ g_ \kihfbgZx ijh i_j\mx aZiylmxªM g_dhlhjuo rdhevgbdh\ ^_eh h[klhbl bgZq_

hgb kjZam ^h]Z^u\Zxlky qlh ibrml h[hjhl beb ijb^Zlhqgh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ kjZam klZ\yl i_j\mx aZiylmx gh ih oh^m ibkvfZ aZ[u\Zxl k\hx ^h]Z^dm b h \lhjhc aZiylhc m`_ g_ \kihfbgZxl M lZdbo rdhevgbdh\ \ ijb\_^_gghf \ur_ ijbf_j_ ba ©I_kgb h Khdhe_ªF =hjvdh]h l_jy_lky aZiylZy ihke_ keh\Z k\_jgmeky

BlZd \ kha^Zgbb ]jZfhlgh gZibkZggh]h l_dklZ \k_ \j_fy mqZkl\mxl ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_ b aZihfbgZgb_

;ehdb

Qlh `_ bf_ggh \u ij_^m]Z^u\Z_l_ b aZihfbgZ_l_" Keh\Z" Keh\hkhq_lZgby" < hl^_evguo kemqZyo wlh fh`_l [ulv b lZd gh dZd ijZ\beh \u jZ[hlZ_l_ k p_eufb ]jmiiZfb keh\ Mkeh\bfky gZau\Zlv wlb ]jmiiu [ehdZfb kh]eZkgh ijZ\beZf hgb gm`^Zxlky \ \u^_e_gbb beb hl^_e_gbb agZdZfb ij_ibgZgby LZd [ehdZfb y\eyxlky b ijhklu_ ij_^ eh`_gby \ keh`ghf b h[hkh[e_ggu_ \lhjhkl_i_ggu_ qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby b \\h^gu_ ij_^eh`_gby

Ihkfhljbf gZ ijbf_jZo dZd ij_^eh`_gby ^_eylky gZ [ehdb

Dlh jZ[hlZ_l k ex[h\vx lhl \ghkbl ihwabx \h \kydmx jZ[hlm.

G = Q_jgur_\kdbc < wlhf ij_^eh`_gbb ^\Z [ehdZ H^bg ² lhl \ghkbl ihwabx \h \kydmx jZ[hlm Dlh bf_ggh" GZ wlhl \hijhk hl\_qZ_l ^jm]hc [ehd Dlh jZ[hlZ_l k ex[h\vx

16

<k_ lh q_]h dhkg_lky q_eh\_d haZj_gh _]h ^mrhc `b\hx.

K Y FZjrZd < wlhf ij_^eh`_gbb lh`_ ^\Z [ehdZ

H^bg ² \k_ lh haZj_gh _]h ^mrhc `b\hx : qlh wlh" >jm]hc [ehd hl\_qZ_l q_]h dhkg_lky q_eh\_d.

<h \lhjhf kemqZ_ jZa^_e_gb_ gZ [ehdb g_kdhevdh ljm^g__ q_f \ i_j\hf lZd dZd hgb g_ ke_^mxl ^jm] aZ ^jm]hf Z h^bg \lhj]Z_lky \ ^jm]hc b jZkqe_gy_l _]h ihwlhfm ijboh^blky fuke_ggh \hkklZgZ\eb\Zlv i_j\uc [ehd dZd p_eh_

Dh]^Z m ibrms_]h q_eh\_dZ kihkh[ghklv fuke_ggh h[t_^bgylv keh\Z \ [ehdb ^hklb]Z_l \ukhdh]h mjh\gy jZa\blby hg kjZam gZoh^bl bo \ j_q_\hf ihlhd_ gZijbf_j \_kv ^__ijbqZklguc h[hjhl Z g_ hl^_evgh ^__ijbqZklb_ b aZ\bkbfu_ hl g_]h keh\Z JZ[hlZ gZ hkgh\_ lZdh]h jZa\blh]h mf_gby klZgh\blky ]hjZa^h [uklj__ b wdhghfg__ GZ wlhf mjh\g_ ibrmsbc m`_ g_ ljZlbl \j_f_gb gZ h[^mfu\Zgb_ lh]h dZdb_ ijZ\beZ hg ijbf_gy_l

Fh`_l [ulv ^Z`_ g_ijhba\hevgh hibjZ_lky ibrmsbc gZ hjb_glbjmxsb_ keh\Z keh\Z ih^kdZadb dhlhju_ dZd [u kb]gZebabjmxl h gZqZe_ lh]h beb bgh]h [ehdZ

17

Kj_^b gbo khxau khxagu_ mdZaZl_evgu_ keh\Z b jy^ ^jm]bo GZ gZk jZ[hlZ_l p_eh_ ©]jZffZlbq_kdh_ [xjh ijh]ghah\ª GZijbf_j _keb ohly lZd dZd b l ^ kem`Zl kb]gZehf lh]h qlh fu bf__f ^_eh k ijb^Zlhqguf ij_^eh`_gb_f dhlhjh_ gm`gh hl^_eblv hl ]eZ\gh]h LZd ij_^kdZau\Z_l qlh b khhl\_lkl\mxsmx aZiylmx gZijbf_j lZd ]em[hd qlh beb lZd kbe_g qlh Lhl ij_^kdZau\Z_l dhlhjuc Keh\Z lbiZ ih^gy\ beb jZa]ey^u\Zy kb]gZebabjmxl h gZqZe_ ^__ijbqZklgh]h h[hjhlZ LZdb_ keh\Z dZd mjhgb\rbc b]jZxsbc himkdZ_fuc h[_sZxl ijbqZklguc h[hjhl

?keb q_eh\_d gZmqbeky magZ\Zlv wlb kb]gZeu \ h[s_f j_q_\hf ihlhd_ ©qblZlvªbo dZd hohlgbd qblZ_l ke_^u gZ kg_]m lh hg m`_ fh`_l g_ ijhklh \b^_lv [ehdb gh b ij_^\b^_lv bo ij_^qm\kl\h\Zlv

=jZfhlghklv gZ©dhgqbd_ i_jZª

Dh]^Z mf_gb_ ij_^qm\kl\h\Zlv [ehdb b m^_j`b\Zlv bo \ iZfylb \ujZ[Zlu\Z_lky kdeZ^u\Z_lky gZ^_`gZy hkgh\Z lhc ]jZfhlghklb dhlhjZy ©ijbjhkeZ d dhgqbdm i_jZª

>Z\Zcl_ ihijh[m_f k\hb kbeu \ ij_^m]Z^u\Zgbb K_cqZk \u ijhql_l_ g_kdhevdh hlju\dh\ ij_^eh`_gbc Ihijh[mcl_ kdZaZlv h dZ`^hf ba gbo \ kZfhf h[s_f ko_fZlbq_kdhf \b^_ dZdh\ kfuke ^Zevg_cr_]h l_dklZ b \ dZdmx kbglZdkbq_kdmx dhgkljmdpbx wlhl kfuke [m^_l ©h^_lª JZ[hlZy k ijbf_jZfb \u kgZqZeZ ihklZjZcl_kv k^_eZlv \k_ \hafh`gh_ kZfhklhyl_evgh Z ihlhf ijh\_jvl_ k_[y ih gZrbf hl\_lZf

;_a ohjhr_]h \eZ^_gby jh^guf yaudhf gb h^bg ba gZk g_ fh`_l ^\bgmlv \i_j_^ gb gZ rZ] gb Fh`gh h`b^Zlv qlh ^Zevr_ [m^ml i_j_qbke_gu l_ h[eZklb `bagb dhlhju_ g_evay ^\bgmlv \i_j_^ [_a agZgby jh^gh]h yaudZ Ke_^h\Zl_evgh fh`gh ij_^m]Z^Zlv h^ghjh^gu_ qe_gu ij_^eh`_gby k ih\lhjyxsbfky khxahf gb f_`^m dhlhjufb ^he`gZ klZ\blvky aZiylZy

>_ckl\bl_evgh ij_^eh`_gb_ dhgqZ_lky lZd gb gZmdm gb l_ogbdm gb

bkdmkkl\h

Dhkfh]hgby wlh <_jhylgh ^Zevr_ [m^_l ^Zgh hij_^_e_gb_ dhkfh]hgbb Ih \b^bfhfm \ wlhf ij_^eh`_gbb ih^e_`Zs__ b kdZam_fh_ \ujZ`_gu kms_kl\bl_evgufb \ bf_gbl_evghf iZ^_`_ Z ]eZ]he k\yadZ hlkmlkl\m_l I_j_^ wlh ^he`gh klhylv lbj_

18

>_ckl\bl_evgh \k_ ij_^eh`_gb_ \u]ey^bl lZd Dhkfh]hgby ² wlh

gZmdZ h ijhbkoh`^_gbb b jZa\blbb g_[_kguo l_e

G_[_kgZy f_oZgbdZ dhlhjmx A^_kv \_jhylgh ihc^_l j_qv h lhf qlh dlh lh k^_eZe \ jZa\blbb wlhc gZmdb Wlh [m^_l keh`gh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ \ dhlhjhf h^gh ijhklh_ jZkiheh`_gh \gmljb ^jm]h]h GZ^h ihklZ\blv aZiylmx i_j_^ dhlhjmx b ^h dhgpZ wlh]h [ehdZ ihfgblv h g_h[oh^bfhklb \lhjhc aZiylhc

>_ckl\bl_evgh wlh ij_^eh`_gb_ \u]ey^bl lZd G_[_kgZy f_oZgbdZ dhlhjmx kha^Zeb D_ie_j b Gvxlhg bamqZ_l aZdhgu \jZs_gby g_[_kguo

l_e

BlZd fu ihagZdhfbeb \Zk k \Z`g_crbf k_dj_lhf ]jZfhlghklb ² ij_^m]Z^u\Zgb_f Gh \u m`_ agZ_l_ qlh ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv g_^hklZlhqgh GZ^h mf_lv aZihfgblv m]Z^Zgguc [ehd ^h l_o ihj ihdZ hg g_ [m^_l ©aZdjulª gm`guf agZdhf M h^gbo ex^_c wlh aZihfbgZgb_ ijhbkoh^bl kZfh kh[hc ^jm]bf ^Z_lky ljm^g__

Fh`gh eb jZa\blv \ k_[_ kihkh[ghklv aZihfbgZlv"B _keb fh`gh lh dZd" Qlh[u gZclb hl\_lu gZ wlb \hijhku mq_gu_ bamqZeb b kjZ\gb\Zeb jZ[hlm rdhevgbdh\ mf_xsbo b g_ mf_xsbo m^_j`b\Zlv \ iZfylb l_dkl <hl qlh hgb h[gZjm`beb Ij_^eh`_gb_ hklZ_lky \ iZfylb m l_o dlh ©\b^blª_]h Wlh ^\hydh_ \b^_gb_ <h i_j\uo ykgh_ q_ldh_ ij_^klZ\e_gb_ kljmdlmju ij_^eh`_gby l _ khklZ\eyxsbo _]h [ehdh\ bo qbkeZ b \aZbfgh]h jZkiheh`_gby h^gbf keh\hf ©\b^_gb_ª ko_fu ij_^eh`_gby <h \lhjuo ij_^klZ\e_gb_ lh]h qlh hibkZgh \ ij_^eh`_gbb \ \b^_ `b\hc dZjlbgu beb jy^Z `b\uo dZjlbg GZijbf_j ij_^eh`_gb_ DZrlZgdZ

ihpZjZiZeZ ^\_jv gZe_]eZ gZ g__ ]jm^vx b lhlqZk `_ ihqm\kl\h\ZeZ kljZgguc ih^hajbl_evguc aZiZo aZihfbgZxl l_ dlh k h^ghc klhjhgu kjZam ©\b^blª qlh wlh ijhklh_ jZkijhkljZg_ggh_ ij_^eh`_gb_ k h^ghjh^gufb qe_gZfb Z k ^jm]hc klhjhgu ij_^klZ\ey_l k_[_ g_[hevrmx ju`mx kh[Zdm gZe_]Zxsmx ]jm^vx gZ ^\_jv keurbl lbob_ pZjZiZxsb_ a\mdb aZf_qZ_l dZd gZklhjh`beZkv DZrlZgdZ hl ih^hajbl_evgh]h aZiZoZ Mf_gb_©\b^_lvªl_dkl²wlh lh`_ h^bg ba k_dj_lh\ ]jZfhlgh]h ibkvfZ

H lhf dZd jZa\blv kihkh[ghklv©\b^_lvªkljmdlmjm ij_^eh`_gby fu _s_ [m^_f ]h\hjblv \ ke_^mxsbo ]eZ\Zo Qlh `_ dZkZ_lky kihkh[ghklb kha^Z\Zlv h[jZau \ \hh[jZ`_gbb hgZ ^ZgZ hl ijbjh^u dZ`^hfm q_eh\_dm gh jZa\blZ m ex^_c \ jZaghc kl_i_gb M g_dhlhjuo \hkijbgbfZ_fuc l_dkl h`b\Z_l \ khagZgbb kZf kh[hc dZjlbgu djZkdb a\mdb b ^Z`_ aZiZob \hagbdZ

19

xl g_ijhba\hevgh b _kl_kl\_ggh \f_kl_ k \hkijbgbfZ_fufb keh\Zfb M ^jm]bo wlh]h kZfh kh[hc g_ ijhbkoh^bl b hgb jZ[hlZxl k l_dklhf g_ ©\dexqZyª_]h `b\h_ \b^_gb_ b g_ jZaebqZy \ g_f h[jZah\ dZd \ dhfgZl_ ]^_ g_ \dexq_g k\_l Gh q_eh\_d fh`_l mkbeb_f \heb ©\dexqblvª k\_l b m\b^_lv gZoh^ysb_ky \ dhfgZl_ ij_^f_lu G_h[oh^bfhklv ©\dexqZlvª \hh[jZ`_gb_ ijb jZ[hl_ k l_dklhf hq_gv \_ebdZ Wlh hlghkblky g_ lhevdh d ibkvfm gh b d ql_gbx ex[hc ebl_jZlmju dZd om^h`_kl\_gghc lZd b ihagZ\Zl_evghc

?keb kihkh[ghklv ij_^klZ\eylv k_[_ gZ hkgh\_ l_dklZ ajbl_evgu_ b a\mdh\u_ h[jZau m q_eh\_dZ jZa\blZ keZ[h hg fh`_l __ jZa\blv p_e_gZijZ\e_ggh jZ[hlZy gZ^ kh[hc ©QblZlv lZd qlh[u keh\Z ij_\jZsZebkv \ dZjlbgu Z ]hehkZ ^_ckl\mxsbo ebp a\mqZeb b dZ`^Zy kljZgbpZ h`b\ZeZ fh`gh gZmqblvky ² ]h\hjbl ibkZl_ev K Ev\h\ IhgZqZem ijb^_lky ^_eZlv khagZl_evgh_ mkbeb_

Dhg_qgh h[jZau klZgml \hagbdZlv \ \hh[jZ`_gbb g_ kjZam Z bgh]^Z _^\Z \hagbdgm\ [m^ml mkdhevaZlv IhdZ \ujZ[hlZ_rv \ k_[_ ijb\uqdm \b^_lv \ keh\Zo dZjlbgm i_j\h_ \j_fy kbevgh mklZ_rv Gh mkbeby \hagZ]jZ^ylky KljZgbpu dgb] h`b\ml jZkp\_lml djZkdZfb gZihegylky a\mdZfb b aZiZoZfbª

Dh]^Z \u ijb\udg_l_ fuke_ggh ©h`b\eylvª l_dkl lh ihemqbl_ h]jhfguc \ub]jur ijb _]h aZihfbgZgbb b ke_^h\Zl_evgh ijb _]h ]jZfhlghc aZibkb

BlZd agZgb_ ijZ\be mf_gb_ ^_ckl\h\Zlv \ khhl\_lkl\bb k gbfb kihkh[ghklv ij_^m]Z^u\Zlv aZihfbgZlv fuke_ggh ©h`b\eylvª l_dkl b [ukljh gZoh^blv [ehdb \ ij_^eh`_gbb ² aZeh] mki_rgh]h h\eZ^_gby imgdlmZpb_c

: qlh ijhbkoh^bl k l_fb, dlh, dZd ]h\hjbe Dml_cdbg \ dhf_^bb > B Nhg\babgZ©G_^hjhkevª ©m[hyeky [_a^gu ij_fm^jhklbªb g_ hk\hbe \k_]h lh]h qlh g_h[oh^bfh ^ey ]jZfhlghc jZkklZgh\db agZdh\ ih oh^m ibkvfZ"LZdb_ rdhevgbdb h[uqgh ibrml [_a agZdh\ Z bo jZkklZgh\dm hklZ\eyxl gZ ihlhf ?keb \j_fy hklZ_lky hgb i_j_qblu\Zxl l_dkl h[^mfu\Zxl _]h b klZ\yl qlh fh]ml ?keb `_ \j_f_gb \ h[j_a ² ^_eh iehoh <ujmqblv fh`_l lhevdh kihkh[ bah[j_l_gguc \ klZju_ \j_f_gZ h^gbf hkljhmfguf ]bfgZabklhf dhlhjuc gZibkZe khqbg_gb_ [_a agZdh\ \ dhgp_ bah[jZabe fgh`_kl\h aZiyluo lbj_ b ^\h_lhqbc Z ih^ gbfb ih^ibkZe©FZjr ih f_klZfª

20

=eZ\Z II

KZfu_ e_]db_ agZdb ij_ibgZgby

Fukeb qm\kl\Z b agZdb

< B >Zev \_ebdbc kh[bjZl_ev jmkkdbo keh\ kha^Zl_ev fgh]hlhfgh]h ©Lhedh\h]h keh\Zjy `b\h]h \_ebdhjmkkdh]h yaudZª kqblZe agZdb ij_ibgZgby lZdbfb `_ iheghp_ggufb yaudh\ufb agZdZfb dZd [md\u

©AgZdhiheh`_gb_ ]jZfhlu ibkvfZ aZdexqZ_l \ k_[_ agZdb ibkvf_ggu_, beb [md\u b agZdb ij_ibgZgbyª²ibkZe hg DZdh\h `_©]_h]jZnbq_kdh_ iheh`_gb_ªimgdlmZpbhgguo agZdh\" M gbo _klv ljb baex[e_gguo f_klZ h[blZgby

I_j\h_ ² wlh dhg_p ij_^eh`_gby A^_kv ihk_ebebkv q_luj_ agZdZ \hijhkbl_evguc \hkdebpZl_evguc lhqdZ b fgh]hlhqb_ <lhjh_ ² ]jZgbpZ f_`^m ijhklufb ij_^eh`_gbyfb \ khklZ\_ keh`gh]h AgZdh\ dhlhju_ a^_kv h[blZxl lh`_ q_luj_ aZiylZy lhqdZ k aZiylhc ^\h_lhqb_ b lbj_ Lj_lv_ ²©ijhkljZgkl\hª \gmljb ijhklh]h ij_^eh`_gby A^_kv fh`gh \klj_lblv g_ lhevdh aZiylmx ^\h_lhqb_

21