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Fricative Plosion.

When a plosive consonant precedes a fricative consonant in a word or a junction of words it has its release during the pronunciation of the fricative. This phenomenon is the result of close coarticulation of adjacent consonants in English and is called fricative plosion (partial regressive assimilation).

In accordance with phonotactic possibilities of English consonants fricative plosion is observed in the word non-initial clusters [ps, ts, ks, bz, gz, p0, t0] and at a junction of words in the sequences of a plosive + [f, v, 0, 8, s, z, 4, h]. According to their frequency of occurrence in normal discourse the dominant type of such combinations is ‘a plosive + [s], [z]’ in a word final position.*

! While pronouncing the cluster [ts] take care not to substitute it by the Russian sound [ц]. To avoid this mistake mind the apical-alveolar character of these English consonants.

1. Pronounce the following words and phrases observing close coarticulation of plosive and fricative consonants.

a) a verb + -s

keep – keeps

sleep – sleeps

slip – slips

rip – rips

wrap – wraps

help – helps

jump – jumps

harp – harps

loop – loops

hop – hops

stop – stops

hope – hopes

develop – develops

beat – beats

sit – sits

pat – pats

set – sets

hurt – hurts

cut – cuts

part – parts

put – puts

root – roots

cost – costs

sort – sorts

wait – waits

write – writes

note – notes

leak – leaks

shrink – shrinks

think – thinks

lack – lacks

peck – pecks

work – works

park – parks

look – looks

rock – rocks

fork – forks

walk – walks

break – breaks

like – likes

grab – grabs

rub – rubs

grub – grubs

rob – robs

hob – hobs

bribe – bribes

probe – probes

read – reads

rid – rids

stand – stands

spend – spends

word – words

stud – studs

guard – guards

hood – hoods

nod – nods

afford – affords

fade – fades

hide – hides

load – loads

league – leagues

dig – digs

drag – drags

gag – gags

leg – legs

hug – hugs

drug – drugs

plug – plugs

a noun + -s

heaps, lips, lamps, stemps, cups, carps, loops, shops, apes, hopes;


seats, gifts, rats, pets, nuts, darts, boots, knots, sorts, plates, nights, coats, clients;

Greeks, sticks, sacks, necks, ducks, larks, rocks, forks, lakes, oaks;

ribs, cabs, labs, herbs, babes, bribes, robes, baobabs;

deeds, kids, lads, friends, words, floods, bards, moods, rods, lords, roads, beards;

leagues, wigs, figs, pegs, legs, bags, rugs, drugs, fogs, dogs.

a noun + ’s

Pete’s, Pat’s, Frank’s, Jack’s, Bob’s, Hob’s, Fred’s, Doug’s;

Europe’s future, a moment’s pause, the bank’s clients, the island’s outline, dog’s life, the ship’s crew, a giant’s task, cat’s paw, the government’s policy, the serpent’s tooth, Madrid’s history, in one’s mind’s eye, at one’s wit’s end, to one’s heart’s content.


steps, troops, perhaps, upset, upside, upstairs, stepson, stepsister, depth, helpful, hopeful, zip-fastener;

it’s, what’s, that’s, its, oats, whereabouts, itself, outside, eighth, short-staffed, short-sighted, left-handed, light-fingered;

thanks, trunks, optics, physics, phonetics, mathematics, mixture, exercise, Oxford, except, accept, expect, excuse, expensive, exciting, thankful, thick-skinned;

absent, abstract, lobster, obstacle, obstinate, kerbstone, rubstone, substance, subsidy, observe, obstruction;

cards, goods, billiards, besides, forwards, backwards, afterwards, towards, foodstuffs, midstream, bedspread, hardship, bloodshed, handful, adventure, advantage, red-handed;

pigsty, pigskin, drugstore, plaquesome, pigfish, drag-hunt, plug-switch, plaque-stricken


a plosive + [f, v, 0, 8, s, z, 4, h]

[p] to develop photographs, cheap veal, to slip through one’s fingers, keep the change, top secret, to keep zebras, stop shouting, a steap hill;

[t] perfect phonetics, joint venture, Margaret Thatcher, shut the door, next Saturday, fruit salad, a private sector, a white zipper, might shrink, doesn’t have;

[k] to take for granted, to walk very fast, to look through, take the lift, a public sector, I think so, to lack zest, to talk shop, to work hard;

[b] superb festivals, suburb views, to rub through, bribe the policeman, to rub sault in a wound, Bob zipped up (his jeans), to rob shops, to sob heavily;

[d] the road forks, a blood vessel, to read thoroughly, find the address, Hollywood stars, to feed zebras, broad shoulders, a kind heart;

[g] to drug food, a big vehicle, a vague thought, to drag the truth, vague slogans, to dig zealously, a vague shape, hug him

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