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Nasal Plosion.

When the plosives [p, t, k, b, d, g] are followed by the nasal sonants [n, m] (either within a word or at a word junction) the articulation of the sonant starts when the articulation of the plosive consonant is not yet finished. The soft palate is lowered and instead of removing the obstruction in the mouth cavity the air stream passes through the nasal cavity producing the effect of a nasal plosion (partial regressive assimilation).*

e.g.

madness;

chutney;

topmost;

not now;

take mine;

let me see.

! 1) To produce the nasal character of plosion correctly keep the tongue-tip pressed against the teethridge till the release of the sonant.

2) In the clusters ‘a plosive + a nasal sonant + a plosive’ (didn’t, wouldn’t) keep the tongue-tip against the teethridge till the release of the final plosive.

Sound Drills.

1. Pronounce the following words and phrases observing nasal plosion.

a)

[pn/pm]

[tn/tm]

open

happen

halfpenny

cheapness

shipmate

groupmate

topmost

step-mother

development

eaten

bitten

mittens

button

written

Britain

curtain

certain

rotten

chutney

fortnight

forgotten

bottom

utmost

nutmeg

oatmeal

nightmare

stuntman

statement

apartment

department

compartment

appointment

commitment

absent-minded

[kn/km]

[bn/bm]

[dn/dm]

bacon

taken

tighten

thicken

token

broken

picnic

cockney

sickness

darkness

banknote

technique

technology

acknowledge

checkmate

blackmail

ribbon

abnormal

abnormity

cabman

submit

submerge

submarine

hidden

pardon

ridden

maiden

widen

sudden

modern

burden

student

Sweden

midnight

kidney

madness

goodness

kindness

admit

admire

admiralty

commandment

[gn/gm]

signal

ignore

signature

significant

stagnation

dogma

stigma

pygmy

Pygmalion

b)

eating – eaten

patting – pattern

meeting – mitten

beating – beaten

writing – written

reading – ridden

hoping – open

taking – taken

baking – bacon

shaking – shaken

c)

bit – bitter – bitten

but – butter – button

pat – patter – pattern

white – whiter – whiten

kit – kitty – kitten

read – reader – ridden

wide – wider – widen

bird – birdy – burden

hap – happy – happen

talk – talker – token

bake – baker – bacon

d)

did – did not – didn’t

could – could not – couldn’t

would – would not – wouldn’t

should – should not – shouldn’t

ought – ought not – oughtn’t

might – might not – mightn’t

e)

[p]

cheap meat, pop music, top marks, keep money, stop nagging, help Nick;

[t]

not mine, quite new, at night, right now, part nine, start nearer, light music, last month, fat meat, lost matches, pocket money, get married, doesn’t matter, didn’t mean, don’t mind, don’t make mistakes, meet my husband;

[k]

dark nights, sick men, rock music, black magic, terrific memories, to check meters, it took me;

[b]

lab nine, superb memories, suburb neighbours, to bribe managers, to rob newcomers, rub new ointment;

[d]

good news, a golden rule, a red nose, a bad name, good night, God knows, a good memory, a road map, a blind man, old manners, to dread mice, good morning;

[g]

a big net, a vague moment, dig more, a big meal, hug me.

2. Practise nasal plosion in connected speech.

a) set expressions, proverbs and sayings

a) (the) rotten apple

b) (the) iron curtain

c) forbidden fruit

d) (a) hard nut to crack

e) like lightning

f) to kill with kindness

g) to tighten the screw

h) to cry over the spilt milk

i) to worship the golden calf

j) to be in one’s right mind

1. No news is good news.

2. Once bitten, twice shy.

3. Forbidden fruit is sweet.

4. It never rains but it pours.

5. Two wrongs do not make a right.

6. Give a dog a bad name and hang him.

7. The rotten apple injures its neighbours.

8. Like master, like man.

9. Waste not, want not.

10. One swallow doesn’t make a summer.

11. Evil communications corrupt good manners.

12. You can’t make an omelete without breaking eggs.

b) sentences

1. She couldn’t meet me at midnight.

2. Jack knows where to keep money in Sweden.

3. It took me a fortnight to put up with the bad news.

4. Wouldn’t you back my latest developments?

5. The stories the blind man told me sounded misterious.

6. He was as stubbon as a mule: he would never use any road maps.

7. I must admit we admired the Admiralty to the utmost degree.

8. The old man couldn’t cope with seasickness in the darkness of despair.

9. God knows why his red Nissan has just broken down all of a sudden.

10. I’m a language student. Susan is my groupmate. She has a very good memory for words.

11. I got married last month. I admire my husband for his kindness. He’s fond of pop music.

c) conversational contexts

1.

– Oh dear, I’ve spilt milk on the tablecloth. I’m very sorry.

– It doesn’t matter. The cloth needs washing anyway.

2.

– It was most kind of you.

– Don’t mention it. I was glad I was able to help.

3.

– Couldn’t you take the day off?

– Let me see… Well, it might be possible.

4.

– I’m afraid I shan’t be able to phone you in Great Britain.

– Drop me a line, then.

5.

– There’s a variety show at nine sharp.

– We mustn’t miss it. We’d manage it if you helped me with cooking.

6.

– How did you like that tragedy on TV last Monday?

– Oh, it was a nightmare: I couldn’t help laughing.

7.

– Good morning. I’d like to fix an appointment with the principal.

– Would nine tomorrow be all right?

– I’m afraid not. He’s got rather a full day tomorrow.

8.

– We’ve definitely decided to hold this party in the garden, haven’t we?

– Certainly. It would be madness to try and entertain all those children indoors.

9.

– Where did I put my screwdriver? I want to tighten up these loose screws on the door hinges.

– You had it in your hand when you went into the kitchen right now.

10.

– How have your two sons been doing at school lately, Andy?

– I don’t know what I should do: Richard never starts working, and Greg never stops slaving at his books.

11.

– Have you heard that young Patrick Ellis has been fired?

– How awful! He’s forgotten a golden rule: ‘Never blackmail or bribe managers’.

12.

– Would you mind putting out your cigarette?

– I beg your pardon?

– This is a ‘no smoking’ compartment!

– Is it? I didn’t see a sign. I’m terribly sorry.

d) dialogues, rhymes, poems

1.

PROSECUTOR

ACCUSED

– First you hired the car, didn’t you?

– That’s correct.

– But you didn’t pay for it, did you?

– Well, not exactly.

– You gave your name, didn’t you?

– Yes.

– But it was a false name, wasn’t it?

– Well, er… It was not a bad name.

– And you said you were a doctor, didn’t you?

– Not really.

– You were just lying, weren’t you?

– I didn’t mean to.

2.

I – Are you OK?

J – Yes, I’m all right, but what about my car?

I – There’s not too much damage.

J – What! Just look at it! I only bought it last week. You shouldn’t have been going so fast.

I – Well, I’m sorry, but it wasn’t my fault.

J – Wasn’t your fault? What do you mean? I had right of way.

I – I’m afraid you didn’t. You shouldn’t have come out like that.

J – Why not? There’s no sign.

I – What’s that there then?

J – Oh, yes. A ‘stop’ sign. I must have missed it.

I – Well, you should be more careful. You could have killed us all!

J – Yes … I’m sorry. What more can say?

I – All right … all right. At least nobody’s hurt. Here come the police. You’d better explain it to them.

3.

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