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Contents

Aspiration. Degrees of Aspiration.

Loss of Plosion.

Nasal Plosion.

Fricative Plosion.

Lateral Plosion

Alveolar consonants before [0, 8].

Sonants [m, n, l, w, j, r, 1] General Remarks

Consonant sounds that link words.

Combinations of consonants with [w]

Consonant clusters with [r]

Absence of assimilation in some consonant clusters.

Список использованной литературы.

Aspiration. Degrees of Aspiration.

The English plosives [p, t, k] followed by a stressed vowel are accompanied by aspiration, i.e. strongly expelled breath that bridges the release of the plosive and the onset of the following vowel: pin [phin], tin [thin], kin [khin].

The aspiration is relatively weak in other positions, i.e. when [p, t, k] occur finally or precede a vowel in an unstressed syllable: po`lite, lip.

When [s] precedes or follows [p, t, k], there is practically no aspiration, cf. “kin” [khin] and “skin” [skin], “neck” [nekh] and “necks” [neks].*

! To pronounce the unaspirated variant of a plosive correctly make [s] fortis and prolong it: kill – skill [khil – sskil], leak – leaks [li:k – li:kss].

Note: Learners of English are advised to pay particular attention to the aspiration of [p, t, k] when these phonemes occur initially in a stressed syllable. If a word such as “pin” is pronounced [pin], instead of [phin], there is the danger that the English listener may understand “bin”, since he interprets lack of aspiration as a mark of the lenis [b].

Sound Drills.

1. Practise different degrees of aspiration in the following words:

a)

[p] peace, pin, pen, pan, pearl, pool, pull, palm, pun, pore, pond, pay, pine, peer, pair, pound, poll, point, poor, pire, payer, power;

[t] team, tin, ten, tan, turn, tooth, took, tar, touch, tore, Tom, tail, time, tear (n.), tear (v.), town, tone, toy, tour;

[k] key, kiss, Ken, can, curl, cool, could, calm, come, core, cod, came, kind, care, cow, code, coil;

b)

[p] deep, lip, wrap, loop, up, harp, shop, ape, ripe, hope;

[t] beat, lit, met, rat, hurt, boot, soot, art, gut, thought, not, late, night, out, goat;

[k] beak, lick, neck, sack, book, dark, duck, snake, like, soak;

c)

[p] polite, permit, pathetic, perceive, position, police, pollution, potato;

deeper, happy, copy, supper, topic, paper, viper, super;

[t] metre, knitting, better, latter, butter, artist, water, quarter, later, photo;

together, tomorrow, today, tonight, tomato, taverna, taxation, terrific;

[k] leaking, vicar, second, package, furcoat, rocket, naked, broker, fabricate, suffocate;

canteen, concise, conceit, corrupt, conclude, commune, collective, capricious, capacity, capitulate, communicate.

2. Practise the following words observing unaspirated variants of plosives preceding or following [s]. Make sure you pronounce [s] energetically enough to avoid possible mistakes.

Model:

speak —> [sspi:k]

peaks —> [pi:kss]

speaks —> [sspi:kss]

a)

speed, spill, spell, span, spark, sport, spot, spoon, spade, spider, spare, spoil, special, speculate, sparrow;

weeps, lips, wraps, loops, cups, shops, apes, hopes;

steal, stick, stem, stand, star, storm, stood, steak, style, steer, stare, stone, upstairs, downstairs;

meets, bits, pets, rats, hurts, boots, putts, arts, knots, dates, nights, boats;

scheme, skin, sketch, scan, skirt, scar, score, scale, sky, scare, scout, scope, scraper, scoundrel, scepticism, skeleton;

peaks, licks, necks, sacks, books, parks, ducks, lakes, likes, oaks.

b)

peak – speak

keen – skean

team – steam

pit – spit

tick – stick

kill – skill

pan – span

tack – stack

can – scan

peck – speck

teller – Stella

purr – spur

turn – stern

curl – skirl

poon – spoon

tool – stool

cool – school

park – spark

tart – start

car – scar

pot – spot

top – stop

port – sport

tore – store

core – score

paid – spade

take – steak

Kate – skate

pike – spike

tile – style

tear (n.) – steer

tear (v.) – stare

pair – spare

care – scare

poke – spoke

tone – stone

cope - scope

c)

peak – speak – peaks – speaks

tick – stick – ticks – sticks

pit – spit – pits – spits

top – stop – tops – stops

pot – spot – pots – spots

port – sport – ports – sports

park – spark – parks – sparks

tart – start – tarts – starts

pike – spike – pikes – spikes

cope – scope – copes - scopes

d)

tight – `appetite – style

peace – `masterpiece – speed

case – `staircase – skate

tale – `detail – stale

test – `protest – step

pot – `teapot – spot

cup – `teacup – scull

tip – city – stick

3. Practise different degrees of aspiration in connected speech:

a) set expressions, proverbs and sayings

a) a wasp waist

b) a last straw

c) to one’s heart’s content

d) calm before the storm

e) on an empty stomach

f) to be thick-skinned

g) to kill with kindness

h) to call a spade a spade

i) to bye a pig in a poke

j) to sit between two stools

k) to carry coals to Newcastle

l) to pick the plums out of the pudding

1. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

2. It is the first step that costs.

3. Patience is a plaster for all sores.

4. A storm in a teacup.

5. East or West – home is best.

6. Honesty is the best policy.

7. The tongue is not steel, yet it cuts.

8. Curiosity killed a cat.

9. The pot calls the kettle black.

10. Cut your coat according to your cloth.

11. Who has never tasted bitter, knows not what is sweet.

b) conversational exchanges

1.

– Hallo. Kitty here. Could I speak to Peter, please?

– Sorry, but he’s out.

2.

– Hallo. Patrick Cowel speaking. Could I talk to Stella, please?

– I’m afraid she’s not here. Can you call later?

3.

– They have no time to complete the project.

– That’s no reason for not starting it.

4.

– You will stay a bit longer, won’t you?

– I’m sorry, I can’t. I promised my baby-sitter to come back at ten at the latest.

5.

– What do you think of the place?

– Oh, it’s a delightful spot!

6.

– I think I’ve lost the passports, Poppy.

– How stupid of you, Peter. Didn’t you put them in your pocket?

7.

– I want some tins of tomato paste.

– Try the supermarket in the basement.

8.

– Could you tell us the time, please?

– Yes. It’s exactly twenty-two minutes to ten.

9.

– Would you like some cream in your coffee, Mrs. Clark?

– No, thank you. But I’d like a little milk.

10.

– I must apologize for all the trouble we’ve caused.

– Oh, it’s no trouble at all.

c) tongue-twisters, rhymes, dialogues, poems

1.

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.

If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers

Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

A canner can as many cans

as a canner can,

if a canner can can cans.

A tutor who tooted a flute

Tried to tutor two tutors to toot.

Said the two to the tutor,

‘Is it harder to toot

Or to tutor two tutors to toot?’

2. The Drunken Sailor

Amidst the mists

and coldest frosts,

With barest wrists

and stoutest boasts

He thrusts his fist

against the posts

And still insists

he sees the ghosts.

3.

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