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Duty of the student

by Edward Anthony

It is the duty of the student

Without exceptions to be prudent.

If smarter than his teacher, tact

Demands that he conceals the fact.

4.

A Bad Day

I overslept and missed my train,

slipped on the pavement

in the pouring rain,

sprained my ankle,

skinned my knees,

broke my glasses,

lost my keys,

got stuck in the lift,

it wouldn’t go,

kicked it twice and stubbed my toe,

bought a pen that didn’t write,

took it back and had a fight,

went home angry,

locked the door,

crawled into bed,

couldn’t take any more.

Lateral Plosion

As a result of coarticulation of the plosives [p, t, k, b, d, g] with the lateral sonant [l] (either within a word or at word boundaries) the plosion is heard during the pronunciation of the sonant as the air stream passes along the sides of the tongue, lowered for the articulation of [l]. This phenomenon is known as lateral plosion (partial regressive assimilation).

e.g. plan, little, close, blow, I’d like, glance.

! 1) To pronounce the clusters correctly keep the tongue-tip pressed against the teethridge while articulating [pl], [tl], [kl], [bl], [dl], [gl].

! 2) In the clusters [pl], [tl], [kl] the sonant preceded by a voiceless consonant becomes a little bit devoiced (progressive assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords).

Note: In modern English the pronunciation standards (especially in fluent speech) are characterized by the so called ‘glottal stop’ at the junction of a plosive consonant and a lateral or nasal sonant. The symbol of glottal stop is [?].

e.g. [litl] —> [li?l]

[mitn] —> [mi?n]

Sound Drills

1. Pronounce the following words and phrases observing lateral plosion.

a)

[pl]

[bl]

please

plan

plenty

plastic

plant

plum

plural

plane

plosion

splendid

apple

people

simple

sample

example

couple

employ

complain

helpless

hopeless

bleak

black

bless

block

blond

blood

blue

blame

blind

blouse

table

double

grumble

global

problem

stumbling

Dublin

public

edible

terrible

horrible

possible

probable

changeable

reliable

incredible

responsible

available

unforgettable

[tl]

[dl]

little

battle

kattle

metal

bottle

cutlet

gentleman

softly

greatly

brightly

mostly

definitely

exactly

completely

absolutely

spotless

thoughtless

faultless

Scotland

candle

pedal

paddle

fiddle

middle

medal

model

idle

idol

badly

madly

deadly

hardly

headline

deadline

deadlock

endless

childless

regardless

godliness

Madeleine

[kl]

[gl]

clean

clever

class

clerk

clock

clear

climate

cloud

close (v.)

close (n.)

cloth

clothes

clare

ankle

wrinkle

unkle

circle

bicycle

vehicle

chocolate

duckling

declare

conclusion

glad

glimpse

glitter

glove

glass

glance

gloomy

glide

globe

Gloria

glossary

glamorous

wriggle

eagle

angle

smuggle

struggle

burglar

English

piglet

ugly

b)

pace – place

peas – please

pasta – plaster

pain – plain

late – plate

lace – place

peasant – pleasant

cup – couple

campaign – complain

compete – complete

lit – little

cat – cattle

bat – battle

pet – petal

it – it’ll

that – that’ll

met – metal

what – what’ll

keen – clean

loud – cloud

cap – clap

lip – clip

leer – clear

rink – wrinkle

geographic – geographical

economic – economical

beak – bleak

back – black

bind – blind

lame – blame

link – blink

low – blow

dull – double

globe – global

similar – symbol

need – needle

mid – middle

rid – riddle

pad – paddle

candy – candle

dead – deadly

I’d – idle

lad – glad

love – glove

lied – glide

eager – eagle

anger – angle

smug – smuggle

burger – burglar

c)

ly

bad – badly, mad – madly, dead – deadly, hard – hardly, frank – frankly, quick – quickly, soft – softly, late – lately, great – greatly, most – mostly, vague – vaguely, exact – exactly, definite – definitely, honest – honestly, complete – completely, absolute – absolutely

able/–ible

eat – eatable (edible), terror – terrible, horror – horrible, comfort – comfortable, enjoy – enjoyable, response – responsible, rely – reliable, change – changeable, forget – (un)forgettable, regret – regrettable, understand – understandable

less

help – helpless, hope – hopeless, spot – spotless, thought – thoughtless, fault – faultless, end – endless, regard – regardless, reck – reckless, thank – thankless

d)

[p + l]

stop laughing, to get up late, to sleep like a log, keep left, help Lucy, top level, ripe lemons, cheap lodging

[t + l]

a short-list, best-looking, tight-lipped, at last, at least, just looking, it’ll be, that’ll do, a minute later, to get lost, street lighting, most likely

[k + l]

speak louder, traffic lights, block letters, book learning, shake lightly, like lightning, to take liberties, to pick lavender

[b + l]

the tub leaks, to bribe lawyers, a kerb level, herb liqueur, a mob leader, sob love stories, Bob looks, to describe lots of details

[d + l]

I’d like, bad luck, good looks, a hard layer, grand luxury, the road leads, there’s some bread left

[g + l]

in vague language, a dog lead, a dog leash, a big lawn, a big loan, hug little John

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