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Rain dying out

Much of the weather over Europe will be influenced by a large area of high pressure which extends from the bay of Biscay east into western Russia.

To the north of the high, Atlantic depressions and their associated fronts will skirt northern parts of Britain and Scandinavia.

Today fronts will spread wet and very windy weather into northwestern parts of Scotland and parts of Northern Ireland.

There will also be some rain preceeded by some sleet and snow in parts of Scandinavia. Much of southern Britain and many parts of central Europe will enjoy a fine spell of weather with a fair amount of warm sunshine.

A weakening cold front will spread some cloud and rain into parts of Switzerland, Austria and northern Italy. Tomorrow this cloud and rain will largely die out and then most parts of the continent will stay dry and quite bright with a fair amount of sunshine.

BRITAIN: Fronts will cross northwest Scotland today.

Northwestern parts of Scotland will have a cloudy and very windy day with gales in places. There will be rain at times, some quite heavy.

Over southern and eastern Scotland it will be largely dry and bright with some sunshine. Much of Northern Ireland will be dry and bright but the north of the province will be cloudier with a little rain or drizzle at times.

England and Wales will stay dry and fairly sunny although it will turn cloudier in northern and western areas as the day goes on.

Combinations of consonants with [w]

Consonants preceding [w] are lip-rounded (labialized) in anticipation of [w] (regressive assimilation affecting the position of lips).

e.g. dwelling, quarter, twenty, this week, pump water

In the combinations of voiceless consonants followed by [w] there is also some devoicing of the sonant (progressive assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords). Thus in the clusters ‘a voiceless consonant + [w]’ double (reciprocal) assimilation takes place.

e.g. sweep, thwart, fresh water, French windows

The devoicing is complete when [w] is preceded by [t, k] in a stressed syllable within a word.

e.g. twice, twin, quite, request

Both labialization and devoicing are most noticeable within a word and are weaker at word boundaries.

!

Avoid wrong assimilation in the sequences [v-w] and [f-w] at word junctures. Keep the labio-dental fricatives [f, v] and the bilabial sonant [w] distinctly different: a bottle of white wine; a brief walk.*

Sound Drills.

1. Practice the following words and phrases observing assimilation in the consonant clusters with [w]

a) Pay attention to different degrees of devoicing of [w]

win – twin

wig – twig

weed – tweed

weak – tweak

which – twitch

wine – twine

went to – twenty

why so – twice

wit – quit

ween – queen

west – quest

white – quite

wire – choir

wake – quake

water – quarter

waiter – equator

wing – swing

weed – Swede

weep – sweep

well – swell

wash – swash

warm – swarm

whine – swine

ware – sware

wart – thwart

ward – outward, backward

worm – bookworm

wise – likewise

word – crossword

wear – footwear

work – housework

water – sweet-water

b)

twin

twist

twinkle

twelve

twenty

twaddle

twice

twilight

nitwit

between

knitwear

footwear

software

leftward

outward

trustworthy

swift-winged

sweet-water

queen

quick

quiete

choir

question

quarter

quarrel

quality

quantity

awkward

request

require

colloquial

quickway

earthquake

bookworm

backward

likewise

sweet

swim

switch

swing

sweat

swirl

swam

swat

swarm

sway

swine

swear

sweater

swallow

persuade

crossword

housework

expressway

dwell

dwelling

dwindle

dwarf

headway

goodwill

bindweed

groundwork

woodwork

midwinter

breadwinner

hardware

Edward

Gwen

Gwendolen

penguin

sanguine

languid

languish

language

linguistic

distinguish

thwack

thwart

always

railway

upward

subway

onward

brainwave

someone

somewhat

somewhere

homework

dishwasher

Frenchwoman

c)

It will, it won’t, this one, at once, those ones, front wheels, to swim well, wild mind, the last word, a lone wolf, a long way, superb woman, a brief walk, a cold war, brain-washing, a deep well, a stone wall, an egg whisk, barbed wire, floral wallpaper, mineral water, sweet wine, extreme west, road works, cotton wool, a formal warning, a living wage, a large wardrobe, French windows, the Ancient world, to bribe workers, to bring water.

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