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хаймович-роговская курс теор грамматики.rtf
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§ 473. Parenthetical elements are peculiar parts of the sentence.

  1. They are characterized by negative combinability with the other words of the sentence.

  2. They are, as it were, not in a line with the other parts of the sentence, but parallel to them.

  3. They mostly express the speaker's attitude towards the content of the sentence, its relation to other sentences or si­ tuations.

One poem, of course, is much the finest. (Galsworthy). By the way, there's to be a preface. (Ib.).

§ 474. In accordance with their meanings parenthetical elements fall into four major groups:

1. Modal parenthetical elements serving to show the atti­ tude of the speaker towards the relation of the communication to reality.

He would have to buy them out, of course. (Galsworthy). Certainly he thought about it all the way there. (Lewis).

2. Connective parenthetical elements showing the con­ nection of thoughts.

He did not, however, neglect to leave certain matters to future consideration. (Galsworthy).

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May I say, first, that I have been very much pleased by your analysis of the situation (Lewis)

3. Explanatory parenthetical elements.

He remembered suddenly one night, the first on which he went out to dinner alone an old Malburian din­ner the first year of their marriage. (Galsworthy).

4. All other words inserted into the sentence, including direct address:

Shall I announce him, my lady? (Shaw). Then who manages his business, p r a y^ (Ib.).

§ 475. In a simple sentence parenthetical elements may be expressed by individual words (modal words, adverbs, nouns) and word-combinations of different nature.

Perhaps somebody cleverer than you and Mr. Mangan was at work all the time (Shaw).

In my opinion, what the country needs, first and foremost, is a good, sound, business-like conduct of its affairs. (Lewis).

Is he at home here, so to speak, my lady? (Shaw).

§ 476. In most cases parenthetical elements are connected, in sense with the sentence as a whole, that is why they have no fixed position in the sentence.

/ had a rather good night: in fact, one of the most remarkable nights I have ever passed. (Shaw).

Lady Britomart: What were you drinking, may I ask?

Cusins: A Temperance burgundy, in fact. (Shaw).

If a modal word is connected but with one part of the sen­tence it usually precedes the word it belongs to.

They stayed there for, may be, a year.

WORD-ORDER IN SIMPLE SENTENCES 1. The Position of the Subject and the Predicate in the Sentence

§ 477. We have already dwelt upon the fact that in Modern "English syntactical relations of words in the sentence are very often indicated by the position the words occupy in the sen­tence.

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As known, Modern English is characterized by a rigid word-order in accordance with which the subject of declara­tive sentences, as a rule, precedes the predicate. This is the so-called direct order of words.

E. g. The assistant greeted the professor.

Any deviation from the rigid order of words is termed inversion. It must be said that an unusual position of any part of the sentence may be treated as inversion in the broad sense of the word.

E. g. This I know ... where the object precedes the subject. But, for the most part, the term 'inversion' is used in its narrow meaning with regard to the principal parts of the sen­tence. It indicates that the predicate precedes the subject (indirect order of words). Often has he recollected the glorious days of the Civil War. Here we use the term 'inversion' in the narrow sense of the word.

In an overwhelming majority of cases only the structural (part of the) predicate is placed before the subject. Is he writing? May I enter? Where does he live?

Cases like Away ran the horse are comparatively rare.

§ 478. This is how W. Twaddell sums up the principal cases of inversion in English, which he calls 'the sequence Auxili­ary -+ subject': "The most common occasion for the sequence Auxiliary + subject is with interrogation. Other, semi-mar­ginal constructions with this sequence are

  1. In formal styles, conditional inversion, usually with had + subject + participle.

  2. In formal styles, after sentence-initial elements with negative or res'trictive meanings like "Never, Nor, Neither, Nowhere else, Scarcely, Seldom, Not only".

  3. Informally after "So" in the meaning "also, likewise, too". l

E. g. Did you enjoy it?

Had she foreseen it, she would have acted differently. Nowhere else will you see that. He studies English. So do I.

1 W. F. Twaddell. The English Verb Auxiliaries. 1960.

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