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хаймович-роговская курс теор грамматики.rtf
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§391. Let us now consider the grammatical word-morphemes do, does, did in sentences like Does she ever smile"? We do not know him, etc.

A. I. Smirnitsky 2 is of the opinion that does ... smile, do ... know and did come (in He did come) are analytical forms of the verb serving to express interrogation, negation, and emphasis respectively. There are good reasons, however, for disagreement, since the do-word-morphemes in the above formations differ essentially from morphological word-mor­phemes.

  1. Morphological word-morphemes are combinable, e. g. shall have been asked. The word-morphemes do, does, did form no combinations with any morphological word-morphemes. They appear in the sentence only in case there are no morphological word-morphemes that could be separated from the rest of the analytical word for syntactical purposes.

  2. All the words of the lexemes represented by have, be, shall and will are used as word-morphemes, e. g. have written, has written, had written, to have written, having written. With do it is different. Only those words are used which have the syntactically important meanings of predicativity: do, does, did, not doing or to do. One says Do riot come, but not to come (* to do not come is impossible), not coming (* doing not come is impossible).

  3. The use of the do-word-morphemes, (unlike that of morphological word-morphemes) fully depends on the type of the sentence 3. Compare, for instance, do and are in the following questions:

What books do you sell? What books sell best?

What books are you selling'? What books are selling besfi

Thus, the do-word-morphemes are not parts of analytical words that enter the sentence together with the whole word, as is the case with morphological word-morphemes. They are syntactical word-morphemes used in certain types of sen-

1 Op cit., p. 17.

2 Морфология английского языка, р. 88—91.

3 H. Gleason writes: "The auxiliary did occurs in English only where sentence structure demands it" (Introduction to Descriptive Lin­ guistics, Rev ed , N Y., 1961, p. 174).

l/j8 Хаймсшич и


tences when the predicate verb contains no morphological word-morphemes.

§ 392. A unit of a higher level, as we know, contains units of the next lower level. A sentence contains words, not mor­phemes — parts of words. So morphological word-morphemes cannot be regarded as parts of the sentence as long as they remain parts of analytical words. In spite of the fact that in the sentence He is writing predicativity is conveyed by he is, we cannot treat is as the predicate because it is part of the word is writing. Only the whole word is writing can be regarded as a part of the sentence. Still, the predicate is writing consists of two parts: the structural part is and the notional part writing. Only when the notional part of the verb is dropped does a morphological word-morpheme become the structural predicate of a sentence, as, for instance, in short answers He is, She has, We shall, etc.

It is not so with syntactical word-morphemes. They are nor parts of words, but parts of sentences, more exactly, structural parts of sentences. In It is cold, for instance, the syntactical word-morpheme it is the structural subject of the sentence. In Does he smoke? the syntactical word-mor­pheme does is the structural predicate.

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