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  1. Clipping – a word-formation process that shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables

  2. Cognates - words of different languages that have descended from a common source, as shown by systematic phonetic correspondence.

  3. Collocability – the power of a word to appear in various combination

  4. Combinability - the ability of linguistic elements to combine in speech.

  5. Complex lexico-grammatical partial homonyms –Complex word – a word that contains two or more morphemes

  6. Complex word – a word that contains two or more morphemes.

  7. Compounding - the combination of lexical categories(N,A,V,P) to form a larger word

  8. Compound derivative

  1. Componental analysis -  the representation of a word’s intension in terms of smaller semantic components called features.

  2. Composition – such word-formation where the target word is formed by combining two or more stems

  3. Compound word – a word made up of two or more words

  4. Concept - a generalized reverberation in the human consciousness of the properties of the objective reality learned in the process of the latter’s cognition.

  5. Conceptual criterion of synonymy – definition of synonyms as words of the same category of parts of speech conveying the same concept but differing either in shades of meaning or in stylistics characteristics

  1. Connotation - supplementary meaning or complementary semantic and/or stylistic shade which is added to the word’s main meaning (denotation) and which serves to express all sorts of emotional, expressive, evaluative overtones.

  2. Context -  the semantically complete passage of written speech sufficient to establish the meaning of a given word (phrase)

  3. Contracted compounds – compounds of which 1 component is a shortening (TV-set)

  4. Conversion – a word-formation process that assigns an already existing word to a new syntactic category

  5. Creole – a language that originated as a pidgin and has become established as a first language in a speech community

  6. Criterion of interchangeability of synonyms- compatibility in terms of context and some inconsistencies in other terms of context. (Adjectives rotten and addled are synonyms in the compatibility with the noun of egg, but not synonymous to compatibility with brain or head)

  7. Degradation – development of the negative connotation of the meaning of the word.

  8. Denotative component- conveys a general logical concept, concluded in a word

  1. Derivational compound compounds of which 1 or both components are derived words (music-lover, blue-eyed)

  2. Derivative- a word formed from another by derivation-the formation of new words with affixes according to the word-formation patterns inherent in that language.

  3. Derivation – in morphology , a word-formation process by which a new word is built from a sterm – usually through the addition of an affix – that changes the word class (basic meaning) of the word

  4. Diachrony - the historical development of the system of language as the object of linguistic investigation.

  5. Distribution – the set of all contexts in which this can occur linguistic unit, opposed to all the environments in which it cannot occur, ie, place, order, compatibility, etc. The properties of its use in terms of the location of parts of speech with respect to each other

  6. Dialect – a regional or society variety of a language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language

  7. Dominant synonym – the most general term which is both stylistically and emotionally neutral and can stand for each of all the other members of the synonymic group

  8. Elevation – development of the positive connotation of the meaning of the word

  9. Endocentric compound – a compound word in which one member identifies the general class to which the meaning of the entire word belongs

  10. Exocentric compound - a compound whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of its parts

  11. English Proper element – words that are specifically English having no cognates (words of the same etymological root, of common origin) in other languages whereas for Indo-European and Germanic words such cognates can always be found.

  12. Etymological doublets -  words, that are from the same etymological source, but different in phonemic shape and in meaning.

  13. Etymological triplets - groups of three words of common roof

  14. Etymology -  is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.

  15. Euphemism – a word or phrase that is less direct than the taboo word it replaces and is considered to be more socially acceptable

  16. Free morpheme – a morpheme that can be a word by itself

  17. Full lexical homonyms- words, which represent the same category of parts of speech and have the same paradigm.

  18. Generalization = broadening of meaning

  19. Germanic element - represents words of roots common to all or most Germanic languages


  1. Grammatical adaptation - system of the grammatical forms peculiar to it as a part of speech.

  2. Grammatical meaning - The meaning that is conveyed by word order and other grammatical signals.

  3. Historism – words denoting objects and phenomena which are, things of the past and no longer exist

  1. Homographs - homonyms which are the same in the spelling but different in sound.

  2. Homonyms –words which are identical in sound and spelling, or at least, in one of these aspects, but different in meaning.

Homonymy the phenomenon that one form has two or more meanings and/or syntactic functions. 

  1. Homonyms proper- homonyms which are the same in sound and spelling.

  1. Homophones- homonyms which are the same in sound but different in spelling.

  1. Hybrid - a word different element of which are of etymologically different origin.

  2. Hyponym - the word the meaning of which may be said to be included in that of another word

  3. Hyperonym - a word that is more generic than a given word

  1. Hyperonymy - the semantic relation between a more general word and a more specific word. Tree is a hyperonym of oak, because the set of trees includes the set of oaks.

  1. Ideographic synonyms – words conveying the same concept but differing in shades of meaning

  1. Idiomatic compounds are compounds whose meanings do not correspond to the meanings of their components. The meaning of their components completely change or lost (Butterfinger, bluestocking)

  2. Indo-European element are meant words of roots common to all or most languages of the indo-European group.

  3. Infix – an affix that occurs within a base

  4. Initial shortening- making a new word from the initial letters of a word group (BBC- British Broadcasting corporation)

  5. International words - words of identical origin that occur in several languages as a result of simultaneous or successive borrowings from one ultimate source

  6. Jargon – vocabulary peculiar to some field

  7. Lexeme - a word in all its meanings and forms, i.e. a word as a structural element of language.

  8. Lexical meaning -  the material meaning of a word, i.e. the meaning of the main material part of the word, which reflects the concept the given word expresses and the basic properties of the thing the word denotes. 

  9. Lexicography -  the process of compiling or studying lexical recourses and dictionaries, either monolingual or multilingual.

  10. Lexicon - a speaker’s mental dictionary< which contains information about the syntactic properties, meaning, and phonological representation of a language’s words.

  11. Lingua franca– a language that is used whan speakers of two or more different languages come to a contact and don`t know each other`s languages.

  12. Levels of analysis of a polysemantic word

  1. Main meaning- the author's message, or meaning, which can relate to the theme, but they are definitely not the same thing

  1. Meaning - the message or content that a sign or utterance conveys.

  2. Metalanguage- a language or system of symbols used to discuss another language or system

  1. Metaphor -  the understanding of one concept in terms of another, sometimes responsible for language change.

  2. Metonymy -  a transfer based on the association of contiguity.

  3. Monosemy - the existence within one word of only one meaning.

  4. Morpheme – the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning of function

  5. Morphological compounds – are compounds formed by combining 2 stems with the help of a liking vowel or consonant. (sportsmen, handIcraft)

  6. Native and borrowed affixes

  1. Native element – the elements that had existed in the language and not borrowed.

  1. Narrowing of meaning – the result of a considerable change in range of meaning by narrowing the word combinability

  2. Neologisms – a word or a word combination that appears or is specially coined to name a new object or express a new concept

  3. Neutral compounds – are compounds formed by combining 2 stems or words without using any linking elements

  4. Non idiomatic compounds – are compounds whose meaning can be seen as the sum of the meanings of their components. (horserace)

  1. Nonce word (occasional words) – a word which cannot be considered a permanent member of the word-stock : although it is formed after existing patterns , it is not characterized by general currency but is an individual innovation introduced for a special occasion.

  2. Non-productive affixes –

  1. Obsolete words – words which have completely gone out of use

  1. Onomatopoeia =sound imitation

  1. Paradigm – the system of the grammatical forms of a word

  2. Paradigmatic relations – associative relationship of words in language as distinct from linear relationship of words in speech

  3. Partial lexical homonyms – words of the same category of parts of speech which are identical only in their corresponding forms.

  1. Pidgin – a lingua franca with a highly simplified grammatical structure that has emerged as a mixture of two of more languages and has no native speakers

  2. Phonetic adaptation – a complete or partial change of the phonetic element to the standart of language.

  1. Phraseological unit – a word combination in which semantic unity prevails over structural separability, or in which global nomination is expressed in a combination of different units. It is reproduced in speech.

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